The PRSP for Serbia was adopted in 2003 by the Government of Serbia and the whole text recognizes Roma as one of the most vulnerable groups. One of the addenda to the strategy is dedicated solely to the poverty of Roma. In particular also Roma woman, Roma children, and Roma returnees are mentioned as vulnerable groups regarding aspects of gender, the specific problems of returnees and child poverty. For the period from 2004 to 2006 - the implementation of the Strategy – funds are foreseen within the budget for activities on Roma, such as: Employment (10.2 millions euros), Education (46.8 millions euros), Social protection (1.8 millions of euros), Rebuilding of Roma unhygienic settlements (47.4 millions euros).
The empirical basis for the development of the PRSP has been the survey on living standards of the Serbian population undertaken in 2002 by the government. This survey did not cover Roma, IDPs and refugees, so even if Roma are mentioned in the Strategy, activities on Roma within the Strategy are not based on a comprehensive needs diagnosis.

1 DPRS for Montenegro, 2002-2003, p.19

2 Newspaper “Novosti” issues on 27.05.2003

3 Statistical office of Serbia -Announcement ZP14, No 237, LIV, 19 Nov. 2004

4 Minister of Trade, Tourism and Services –Newspaper “Dnevnik” 10 July 2004

5 Roma shall be understood in a broad meaning, including Roma-related groups such as Ashkali, Egyptians,

6 The Employment Agencies are generally referred to as “the bureau” (literal translation from Serbian). It is a government institution - one functioning as an umbrella organisation at republican level in Belgrade, with branches in the municipalities falling under the jurisdiction of the local authorities. In Montenegro the National Bureau in Podgorica is called the “Institute for Employment” with local branches called Employment Bureaus. Serbia and Montenegro do not have private (commercial) Employment Agencies yet.

7 Statistical office of Serbia -annunciation 295 year LII, 24.12.2002, pp. 6-7

8 Dr Aleksandra Mitrovic, Gradimir Zajic- Roma in Serbia, Institute for criminological and sociological research and Center for antiwar action, Belgrade, 1998, p. 20

9 Goran Basic-Gypsies/Roma in Past and Present, Proceedings of scientific conference held from 16 to 17 December 1996,

10 Bogdan Djurovic-ibid, p. 91

11 Household Survey of Roma, Ashkaelia, Egyptians, Refugees and Internal Displacement People, UNDP, Montenegro, 2003, p. 16

12 Official census of the population, households, accommodations in 2003, Statistics Institute of Montenegro, September 2004 – PRSP, Government of the Republic of Montenegro, 2003 - Survey of Roma, Ashkaelia, Egyptians, Refugees and Internal Displacement People, UNDP, Montenegro, 2003

13 Romany Settlements, Living Condition and Possibilities of Integration of the Roma in Serbia – Research by dr Bozidar Jaksic and m.a. Goran Basic, Ethnicity Research Center, Ministry of Human and Minority rights, OXFAM, 2002,

14 Ibid, p. 15

15 More in: Mirko Barjaktarevic-Roma in Today’s Yugoslavia, Repertory of the Philosophical Faculty, XI-, Belgrade 1970.

16 Dr. Aleksandra Mitrovic, Gradimir Zajic- Roma in Serbia, Center for antiwar action and Institute for criminological and sociological research and, 1998, p 20-21

17 PRSP for Serbia, page 84

18 DPRS for Montenegro, 2002-2003, p. 19

19 Newspaper “Novosti”, issue on 27.05.2003

20 DPRS Montenegro, 2002-2003, p.18

21 Ibid, pp. 19-20

22 Draft Strategy for Integration and Empowerment of the Roma in Serbia and Montenegro-Discussion paper,

23 Roma in Serbia-Center for antiwar action, Institute for criminological and sociological research, Belgrade,

24 UNDP report: Situation of Roma in FRY (SaM) comparing with Roma situation in SEE.

25 Statistical office of Serbia -Announcement ZP14, No 237, LIV, 19 Nov. 2004

26 Minister of Labour, Employment and Social Affairs-Newspaper “Blic” 04 February 2004.

27 Minister of Trade, Tourism and Services –Newspaper “Dnevnik” 10 July 2004

28 DPRS Montenegro, 2002-2003, p. 20

29 ibid, p. 9

30 ibid, p. 5

31 Romany Settlements, Living Condition and Possibilities of Integration of the Roma in Serbia – Research by

32 Draft Strategy for Integration and Empowerment of the Roma in Serbia -Discussion paper, p. 46

33 Needs Assessment Study for the Roma Education Fund, MONTENEGRO, Saša Milić, PhD

34 Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, Montenegro, 2002-2003, p. 7 – states 30.4% unemployment among IDPs instead of 39.4%

35 More in: Jasminka Markovic-Occupations and way of earning of Roma from Kraljevo (1945-1990)- Social Changes and

36 see Jasminka Markovic-Avocations and ways of earning of Roma in Kraljevo, Social Changes and Position of

37 Ibid, page 129-139

38 National Strategy for Resolving the Issues of Refugees and IDPs in Montenegro, October 2004. p. 17

39 According to one research undertaken by Roma Woman Center “ BIBIJA in 10 Belgrade Roma settlements:

40 Needs Assessment Study for the Roma Education Fund, MONTENEGRO, Saša Milić, PhD

41 DPRS, 2002-2003, p.48

42 Ibid, p. 50

43 DPRS, 2002-2003, p. 51

44 Dr Gradimir Zajic-The changes in Labor Market and status and Perspectives of the Roma-, Proceedings of

45 DPRS, 2002-2003, p. 9

46 Dr Dragan Kokovic-Peculiarities of the Romanies Way of Life, Facta Universitatis, Series Philosophy and

47 Dr Gradimir Zajic-The changes in Labour Market and status and Perspectives of the Roma-, Proceedings of

48 Dr Gradimir Zajic-The changes in Labour Market and status and Perspectives of the Roma-, Proceedings of

49 UNDP survey, 2004

50 Dr Dragoljub Djordjevic-Protestantization of Roma in Serbia, Prepared as s part of the project '' Romani

51 Dr Milan Tripkovic, Dr Dragan Kokovic, Basic Sociology with Elements of Sociology of Culture,

52 UNHCR, The Possibility of Applying the Internal Flight or Relocation Alternative within Serbia and

53 ICRC-The Vulnerability Assessment of Internally Displaced Persons in Serbia and Montenegro, International

54 ICRC-The Vulnerability Assessment of Internally Displaced Persons in Serbia and Montenegro, International

55 Romany Settlements , Living Condition and Possibilities of Integration of the Roma in Serbia –, Ethnicity

56 UNHCR, The Possibility of Applying the Internal Flight or Relocation Alternative within Serbia and Montenegro to Certain Persons Originating from Kosovo and Belonging to Ethnic Minorities There, August 2004, page 3

57 Roma who migrated to Western Europe for different reasons during the 1990s, and includes rejected asylum-

58 For more information on the specific problems of IDPs: Analysis of the Situation of Internally Displaced

59 European Commission Staff Working paper, Serbia and Montenegro, Stabilisation and Association Report

60 ICRC-The Vulnerability Assessment of Internally Displaced Persons in Serbia and Montenegro, International

61 Ibid

62 Draft Strategy for Integration and Empowerment of the Roma in Serbia, Discussion Paper, 2002, page 59.

63 In the last years quite some research and conferences have been organised focussed on this issue, but no real

64 Draft Strategy for Integration and Empowerment of the Roma in Serbia, Discussion Paper,

65 Ibid , page 60

66 EC Stabilisation and Association Report 2004, Serbia and Montenegro {COM(2004) 206 final}

67 Needs Assessment Study for the Roma Education Fund, MONTENEGRO, Saša Milić, PhD, p. 12

68 Source: The ISSP survey on household expenditure of Roma, refugees and IDPs, October 2003 and ISSP&WB Research on Poverty and Living Standards in Montenegro, June 2003

69 www.worldbank.org/roma

70 European Commission Staff Working paper, Serbia and Montenegro, Stabilisation and Association Report

71 Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No 70/2001

72 In case of termination of their employment

73 Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia, No. 18/92

74 Official Gazette Montenegro No/94;4/97

75 Official Gazette of Republic of Serbia, No. 48/91, 66/91, 44/98, 49/99, 34/2001

76 Official Gazette of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro, No. 6/2003

77 Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia , No. 71/2003

78 Official gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No. 8/2004

79 Official gazette of the FRY, No. 40/97

80 Official gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No. 35/97, 39/97, 52/97, 22/98

81 Official gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No. 35/97, 39/97, 52/97, 22/98

82 Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No. 20/1992

83 Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No. 42/1992

84 Official Gazette Montengro,43/2002 of 15.8.2002

85 Official Gazette of SFRY , No. 11/78, 64/89, and Official Gazette of FRY, No 42/92, 24/94, 28/96

86 Ostoja Milosavljevic, Zeljko Albaneze-Comment on Labour Law, Business Bureau, Belgrade, 2001, p. 22

87 Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No. 20/1992

88 Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No. 42/1992

89 Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No. 8/2004

90 Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No. 35/97, 39/97, 52/97, 22/98

91 Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No. 35/97, 39/97, 52/97, 22/98

92 Official Gazette of the FRY, No. 40/97

93 Official Gazette of the Republic of Montenegro, 21.04.2004

94 Official Gazette of the Republic of Montenegro No. 43/2002

95

96