Roma Access to Employment in Croatia, September 2004

Report on

Roma Access to Employment:

Croatia

September 2004

By Lovorka Kušan and Ina Zoon

Contents:

I. Executive Summary
II. Introduction
III. Roma Employment Situation
IV. Employment Policy Development and Implementation
V. Legislative Framework
VI. Racial Discrimination in Employment
VII. Access to Vocational Training
VIII. Romani Women
IX. Romani Youth
X. Inter-sectoral Relations
XI. Existing Employment Projects
XII. Conclusions and Recommendations
XIII. Bibliography
XIV. Annexes

I. Executive Summary  

After the war and the process of privatization in the 1990 Croatia is now facing a problem of high unemployment, that is very high among Roma population. In Međimurje out of 5000 Roma persons only 25 are employed. The situation of Roma women and of young Roma is even more difficult. Roma issues are not mainstreamed in the existing national policies on employment, poverty or gender equality. The National Program for Roma proposes specific measures in ten areas: social and political participation, preservation of culture, status related issues, fight against discrimination and legal aid, education, health care, employment, social welfare, protection of youth, motherhood and family, and housing. The implementation of the Program required approximately 20 million kunas (2.700.000 Euros), but only 10% of the amount has been allocated from the State Budget for 2004. The Program identifies four basic obstacles to the integration of Roma in the labor market: low educational level; Roma refusal to attend vocational training programs; employers' prejudices toward Roma and Roma's lack of confidence in the system and their intimate belief that, whatever they do, they would not be able to find a job and poverty and marginalization of the Roma population. To fight these obstacles Program proposes various types of measures: increase the number of Roma employed in public works programs and collection of secondary raw materials for recycling; target Roma for education and training programs, support self-employment, provide incentives for employers who hire Roma persons, and hire Roma counselors. The main challenges for implementation of the Programme are lack of funds; lack of institutional structures inside relevant ministries; lack of expertise of Roma participants and lack of a support mechanism to provide the Roma participants the know how they need and unwillingness/impossibility of some local authorities to finance Roma programs. Although there are in theory remedies to fight discrimination in employment there are many reasons why Roma do not initiate legal proceedings even when they have very strong cases: lack of trust in the judicial system, lack of legal awareness, lack of legal aid, fear of Victimization, lengths of proceedings and lack of understanding of professionals. One of the main barriers Roma encounter when trying to enroll in vocational training programs is the requirement to have had finished primary school. Researches indicate that in Croatia for women in general it is more difficult to find a job, and the Romani women job seekers have to face a series of additional factors, related to their ethnic background and to the marginalization situation they are coming from.

II. Introduction 

The present report was prepared by the consultant in the framework of the Joint Project: “Roma under the Stability Pact” being implemented by the Council of Europe and the OSCE/ODIHR Contact Point for Roma and Sinti Issues and funded by the European Commission. This Programme is envisaged as a continuation of the previous joint Council of Europe/OSCE-ODIHR/European Commission Project “Roma under the Stability Pact”. The Joint Programme covers different countries involved in the Stability Pact, including Croatia, for which the consultant was asked by the Council of Europe to prepare a report on obstacles Roma minority faces in the field of employment.

The Project aims to provide assistance in the implementation, particularly at local level (pilot areas), of national strategies for Roma, in partnership with public administration and Roma representatives and to empower Roma to take action in the defense of their human rights via trainings and effective participation in consultation processes with relevant bodies at state and local level and the purpose of this report is to serve as the basis for analysis and discussion of access by Roma to employment. The report has been done using the methodology and guidelines made by two international consultants, Ms Ina Zoon and Ms Judith Kiers.

The consultant visited and talked to Roma from various settlements in Zagreb (Kozari Bok and Plinarsko naselje) as well as in Sisačko-moslavačka (Capraške Poljane) and Međimurje counties (Lončarevo, Trnovec, Pribislavec), held meetings with Roma and non-Roma NGO’s from different regions (Golden cobra – Roma organization from Zagreb, Better Future – Roma Women organization from Zagreb, Association of Bajaši Roma from Sisak, Association of Roma from Međimurje, Romanes Civil Associations from Popovača, Croatian Helsinki Committee for Human Rights etc.) and had discussions with various representatives of national and local authorities (Office for National Minorities, Croatian Employment Service and its local offices, Ministry of Economy, Labor and Entrepreneurship, Labor inspectorate, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Ombudsman office, representatives of the City of Zagreb and Međimurje county). The main problem consultant faced was lack of studies on Roma and data on the main issues (e.g. educational structure of Roma population, number of the registered unemployed Roma etc.). The serious lack of surveys, data and statistics on Roma, prevent any definite conclusions and serious policy making.

III. Roma Employment Situation 

According to the 2001 census1 out of the total population in the Republic of Croatia 9.463 persons declared as Roma and they make 0.21% in the whole population of 4.437.4602. As already reported by the Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, there are wide discrepancies between the census data and the actual number of persons belonging to Roma minority in Croatia3. According to the National Program for Roma4, and nongovernmental organizations for minority rights5, there are 30.000 to 40.000 Roma in Croatia. According to the Ministry of Labor and Social Care 21.381 Roma persons receive social benefit, in school year 2002/2003 1.900 Roma children were included in educational system and out of that number 1.500 in primary schools6. Head of the Center for Social Care in Čakovec, Janja Balent, confirmed that in Međimurje county there are 5.000 Roma7.

Most Croatian Roma live in Zagreb (Trnje, Pešćenica, Žitnjak, Dubrava, Sesvete), Sisačko-moslavačka county (Novska, Sisak), Varaždinska county (Petrijanec), Primorsko-goranska county (Rijeka), Brodsko-posavska county (Slavonski Brod), Osječko-baranjska county (Beli Manastri, Belišće, Darda, Osijek), Istarska county (Pula, Vodnjan). The county with the most significant Roma population is Međimurska county, where there are 14 Roma settlements8. Most Roma in Croatia (more that 50%) are autochthonous, some of them (about 17%) migrated inside Croatia and others are immigrants, mostly from Bosnia and Herzegovina and from Kosovo9.

There are two linguistic groups among Croatian Roma - Romani and Bajashi. Among Roma in Croatia 45.5% are Muslim, 31.1% are Catholic, 16.9% are Orthodox, 6,8 are of none or other religions10.

Croatia was one of the economically most developed republics of the former Yugoslavia, but the war and the privatization of the formerly state owned companies, done in most cases contrary to the law, resulted in the bankruptcy of the privatized companies, economic crisis and high unemployment. In the 1990s there were discussions and reports on Serbs losing their jobs due to the war and ethnic intolerance but there were no such discussions about Roma, although in Međimurje, for example, almost all Roma men were employed before 199111.

The main characteristics of the labor market in Croatia are drastic decrease of production in the state sector, huge number bankruptcies of companies, the highest level of increase of unemployment since it has been registered (1952), small number of open labor places with the parallel increase of labor in gray economy, domination of temporary work (over 75%) and qualification structure not fit for modern open economy. At the same time workers for the big projects that could employ hundreds of people, like building the highway Zagreb-Split, are imported from Turkey and other countries. There is also a lack of workers in certain industries (ship building industry, education) and of seasonal workers in certain areas (Primorsko goranska and Istarska counties)12. It is estimated that 275.000 persons work in gray economy13.

In November 2003 there were 316.952 unemployed persons, out of which 58,6% were women, with registered unemployment rate of 18,6%. Only 20% (65.569 persons) of the unemployed receive unemployment benefit (720-1.000 HRK)14. Average wage is 3.700 HRK and that amount covers 73% life expenses of the four member family, the biggest part goes for food (35%), than housing expenses (29%). 60.000 workers in Croatia work for irregular wage that is paid with gross delay or not paid at all. Many workers are registered to minimum wage and the rest is given directly to avoid paying insurance15.

There are no official data on unemployed Roma but other data shows that unemployment rate among Roma population is very high. Roma make 13,56% of all persons receiving social benefit in Croatia16 which means that more than 50% of Roma receive social benefit. In Međimurje county, Roma make 20% of all 7.316 registered unemployed, all of them without qualification and work experience, all hard-to-employ17. Head of the Center for Social Care in Čakovec confirmed that in Međimurje county out of 5.000 Roma 4.217 persons or 907 families receive social benefit and that only 25 persons are employed18. Out of 1.004 Roma living in Beli Manastir only 21 person is employed, 21 receives pension and 185 households lives on social benefit19. In Zagreb Roma settlements Struge and Kozari Put labour only 1,64% inhabitants are permanently employed; 4,10% work from time to time unregistered; 2,46% are registered as self-employed; 16,39% work on her/his own from time to time e.g. collecting raw materials; 27,05% are registered at the employment bureau; 20,49 are unemployed but not registered at the employment bureau; 2,46% go to school; 4,92% 7-15 year of age but does not go to school; 1,64% unable to work20. In Roma settlement in Pešćenica in Zagreb 173 Roma families receive social benefit21.

Research conducted by the Croatian Office for Protection of Family, Motherhood and Youth22 shows following labour status of Roma: in pension 1.0%; not working nor looking for job 18,1%; not working but looking for job by her/himself 2,4%; work "on black" from time to time 10,4%; work "on black" permanently 2,5%; unemployed – registered at the Bureau 57,3%; temporary work through the Bureau 1,8%, permanently employed 6,5%. According to that research 89% Roma households do not have a single member with permanent income.

Due to industrialization most traditional Roma occupations, like cart making, repairing umbrellas, kettle making, making of various wooden products (trough, hay-fork, shovels, cooking utencilies) are not needed any more. Some are still alive, like music, ropemaking, basket making, commerce and Roma do make a living out of them23. It seems that there is an interest among Roma population to have farms and grow cattle, particularly horses since trade of horses has been traditional activity of Roma in Croatia.

Certain number of Roma is self-employed as craftsmen (rope makers, basket makers and tradesmen).

Many unemployed Roma make some income out of secondary raw material collecting and trade. Collecting scarp metal is a flexible and family oriented everyday activity. It is very hard physical working in which all members participate, including women and children. The work is rather dangerous due to the high risk of cuts and infections. Roma store and group collected metal in their yards in the settlement. It is bought by private non-Roma companies or by the companies owned by municipalities. Roma prefer collecting metal and not other materials, such as paper, because for metal there is a need on the market, the price is higher and it does not need special storage conditions. Nevertheless, nobody would do this work if poverty does not make them to and the work is considered, by both Roma and majority population, dirty and degrading, and not useful for the community in general.

Unemployment rate of Romani women is almost 100%. They leave school much earlier than men so educational level of Roma women is even lower that the level of Roma men24 and once married they have no opportunity to finish school nor to work because they have to take care of house and children25. Young Roma women who finished school have different self-perception, it seems that by education they get more emancipated and that they do not want motherhood and housekeeping to be their only role.

Young Roma have the most difficult social position in Croatian society with high level of social exclusion. Without education and as victims of prejudice, they face great difficulties in employment26.

In some areas, like in Međimurje, Roma work from time to time on seasonal work in agriculture and building27. In that county, there is a lack of seasonal workers (in vineyards and orchards as well as in building and metal industry) and the labour is imported from Hungary28. In rural areas there are more opportunities to find seasonal work in agriculture.

Grey economy makes 10% of the BDP in Croatia29. Almost 10% of Roma in Međimurje are employed without contracts so the employees avoid paying insurance and other duties30.

In Croatia, everyone, from authorities to organizations for human rights, agrees that education is the main problem in solving the problems Roma population face. According to the Croatian Helsinki Committee only 10% of Romani children finish primary school31. At the First Congress of Roma in Croatia in February 2003 lack of education, high unemployment and problems with obtaining citizenship were pointed as the main problems of Roma population. Researches do confirm those statements: among Roma 15,6% are illiterate, 11,8% are without school but literate, 24,3% have 1-4 grades of primary school, 40,00% have 5-8 grades of primary school and 8,4% have more than primary school32; 86,06% (96,81% women and 74,55% men) did not finish primary school and 38,52% are illiterate33. The educational level of Roma is much lower than the national average, the illiteracy rate is much higher, particularly among Romani women, and the regional labour office in Čakovec estimates that more than 80% of the registered unemployed Roma are not qualified at all and this applies to 97% of the women. 83% of the Roma have no working experience at all34. Only 2% of Roma from Međimurje have some qualifications and only 0,3% graduated secondary school35.

According to the National Program for Roma the data on the educational structure of unemployed Roma registered in the Međimurska County show that very few of them have finished secondary school (of 1.300 Roma who were on the unemployment register in late November 2002, only 41 had secondary school qualifications), and a large number of younger Roma has not finished primary school or are illiterate.

But even when Roma do have needed qualification and there is a lack of labor force, they cannot find job. For example, Roma who had worked for biggest building company in Međimurje, that bankrupted after privatization process, as bricklayers, drivers, plumbers, painters and tile-layers, are still unemployed although there is a registered lack of labour force with those qualifications36.

Although authorities claim that lack of skill in Croatian language, along with the lack of education, is the main obstacle for integration of Roma in education and employment37 and although 78.9 % Roma at home use Romani language and only 6% Croatian (and 11% Albanian and 4% Romanian)38, the knowledge of Croatian language of most Roma is good enough to work in industry and agriculture.

According to the research made by the Croatian Bureau for Protection of Family, Motherhood and Youth in 2002 of all Roma in Croatia 90% are Croatian citizens with all documents and registered residence, 6-7% are foreign citizens (with ID for foreigners) and 3% are without citizenship and without any documents39. During 1990s Roma encountered serious difficulties in accession Croatian citizenship40.

The number of Roma without any papers is still not known but the phenomenon is often mentioned by Roma NGOs as well as by newspapers. For example, daily Jutarnji list reported that in Zagreb Roma settlement Peščenica that there were few dozens Roma without any documents, most of them living in Zagreb for more than 10 years. Ms. Mačetić-Kapetanović, head of Center for social care in Peščenica confirmed that information41.

IV. Employment Policy Development and Implementation 

1. National employment policy and other relevant policies in the field of employment

In its most recent report42, the European Commission notes that, for the time being, Croatian employment policy “consists mainly of a number of active labor market measures … implemented by the employment services.”

Indeed, at the beginning of 2002 the Government introduced the Employment Promotion Program 43 with 6 subprograms: for university graduates younger than 27, for certain qualified workers without working experience, for unemployed persons regardless of age, working experience or qualification (By learning to job for all), for elderly persons with working experience, for disabled persons and for war veterans and members of their families. The subprogram By learning to job for all is particularly relevant for a significant part of the Roma unemployed population, but it has not showed expected results. One of the main problem of this pack of measures is the absence of specific measures targeting the long-term unemployed, a gap also noted by the European Commission44.

Croatia is drafting its first National Action Plan for Employment (NAPE) based on the
revised European Employment Guidelines, which is expected to bring a more strategic approach. The system capacity for data collection, analysis, monitoring and evaluation is also expecting improvements.

There are firm promises from the competent authorities that Roma issues will be incorporated in the draft of the National Action Plan for Employment before being submitted to the government45.

Program of Fight Against Poverty and Social Exclusion46 recognizes as belonging to “vulnerable groups” the long-term unemployed, women, elderly workers and young persons with low educational level. Roma are not expressly recognized as “vulnerable group” by the Program.

Although Program of Fight Against Poverty and Social Exclusion recognized persons with low educational level as the vulnerable group and put as the task to define national program of activities in the employment policy – second chance education and vocational training for unemployed is not an issue dealt with by the existing employment policies. Other measures proposed by the Program are: decentralization in the creation of employment policy; to increase flexibility of the employment market and to regulate in more details: part time jobs, enable flexible working time, enable flexible working place; to stimulate self employment, create conditions for increase of living standards and employment in rural areas, extra activities in agriculture; to change welfare approach to workfare approach; to decrease school failures and giving up secondary school; to create more programs for education of adults; development and creation of modern flexible vocational trainings that fits needs of the market and society; more scholarships and financial aid for pupils from poor families; to create new forms of financial aid for families with more children (help for education, scholarships etc.); to intensify cooperation with employment service and to develop programs for employment of the hard employable persons (vocational training, education etc.); better cooperation with non governmental organizations; to change the rule that person loses benefit just because he earned little bit more than the amount of benefit; decentralization of the social welfare system.

In order to create a solid basis for policy making and programming in the area of poverty alleviation and combating social exclusion of Roma and other vulnerable groups, Croatia still needs to introduce internationally comparable qualitative and quantitative and perform specific analysis47, which, for the time being, are not available.

The National Action Plan for Young People, adopted in 2003, explains the situation of young Roma – they belong to the national minority with the most difficult social status with high level of social exclusion and with only 10% of Roma children finishing primary schools.

Many measures in the field of employment proposed by the Program, if and when realized, could help young Roma - special support for project of youth organizations that prepare youth for labor market through education, training etc.; development of programs of self-employment; support for development of local partnerships; targeted information on employment and entrepreneurship; support for programs aimed to encourage culture of entrepreneurship; development of programs of social engagement of unemployed youth (volunteering in NGOs and public services etc.); education on social responsibility and solidarity in connection with social exclusion, discrimination and stereotypes as well as adequate support to young persons who did not continue education after primary school or who drop out of secondary school.

National Policy for Gender Equality from 2001 to 2005 gave to the Commission for Gender Equality48 the task to establish, until the end of 2001, special working group that should collect data on situation of women belonging to national minorities and to make, until September 2002, report and plan of action for improvement of their position. Once a year public discussions should be organized about position and role of women belonging to national minorities. The Commission for Gender Equality, that ceased to exist, did not implement those measures and the Office for Gender Equality, that has undertaken its competences, has been established in April 2004.

Sectoral Policy: There is no any sectoral employment policy for Roma or any preparatory activities for it, but there is an understanding of the need of such policy and clear intentions of creating one in the Ministry of Economy, Labor and Entrepreneurship49.

2. The National Program for Roma

In January 2000 the newly elected Croatian authorities expressed their willingness to develop a pack of measures aimed to improving the situation of Roma. The National Program for Roma was adopted on October 16, 2003, after more than two years of consultations with Roma NGOs. The entire process was facilitated by a joint Council of Europe – OSCE/ODIHR project.

The overall objectives of the National Program for Roma (hereinafter “the Program”) are to improve, in a systematic manner, their living conditions and to ensure their participation in decision making processes while preserving their identity, culture and tradition. Furthermore, the Program aims to ensure to the members of the Roma community the exercise of the rights guaranteed by the country’s legal system and to eliminate all form of discrimination.

The Program proposes specific measures in ten areas: social and political participation, preservation of culture, status related issues, fight against discrimination and legal aid, education, health care, employment, social welfare, protection of youth, motherhood and family, and housing. The implementation of these measures will be monitored by a special commission50.

The anti-discrimination approach is rather hesitant: although it is stated that one of its main objectives is to eliminate discrimination against Roma, the mere existence of discrimination seems to be sometimes questioned (e.g. "suppression of eventual discrimination of the police towards Roma"). Problems detected within the employment field are immediately followed by remarks which blame Roma for it (e.g. "employers have prejudices and the Roma have wrong perception that they belong to a discriminated minority and that, whatever they do, they will not be able to find a job", "the Roma have low educational levels and refuse to take part in programs for obtaining additional qualifications and in additional training" etc.).

The Program is, to certain extent, sensitive to gender issues: it stresses the need of stronger participation of women in decision-making processes, the need of education of Roma women on health issues and proposes measures for raising awareness of gender equality. However, gender issues are not mainstreamed in all chapters, and some issues are not adequately addressed: lack of education and qualification of Roma women, lack of adequate health protection of Roma women and there are no special measures for employment of women (e.g. day care centers, second chance education etc.).

The implementation of the Program, as adopted in 2003, required approximately 20 million kunas (2.700.000 Euros). Regrettably, priorities seem to have changed after the elections, and the importance attached to the Program diminished: only 10% of the total amount has been allocated from the State Budget for 200451. Many ministries and state agencies have the legal responsibility to implement measures, but will not have financial means to do so. The Croatian Employment Service, for example, did not receive anything, although it has requested 4 million kunas (530.000 EUR). According to the Office for the National Minorities, the Deputy Prime Minister in charge with the implementation of the Program, promised to find a way to secure the rest of the funds52.

The previous government contemplated the possibility of submitting the Program to the Parliament, but decided against in order to speed up the process. The fact that it has been adopted by decree and not by law makes it more vulnerable to electoral changes: it remains to be seen whether the new government will feel obliged to maintain it or support its implementation, will decide to re-design it or will simply ignore it.

Many of the proposed measures are worded in very general terms. Their implementation will require a great effort of articulation and clarification. The mechanism of participation of Roma and their NGOs in the implementation process also needs to be clearly defined.

Having in mind the lack of financial means, the need to elaborate further most of the measures and the need to create efficient implementation structures, the plan to start implementing most of the measures in 2004 seems unrealistic.

Employment chapter of the National Program for Roma53

The Program identifies five basic obstacles to the integration of Roma in the labor market: (i) low educational level; (ii) Roma refusal to attend vocational training programs, (iii) employers' prejudices toward Roma and, (iv) Roma's lack of confidence in the system and their intimate belief that, whatever they do, they would not be able to find a job (v) poverty and marginalization of the Roma population. The basis of this identification is unclear, as in Croatia the information on Roma access to employment is remarkably poor and there are no reliable studies on the subject.

The Program recognizes the existence of prejudices of employers against Roma, but it does not identify any particular discriminatory practice. Furthermore, discrimination is ruled out: “Roma have a wrong perception that they belong to a discriminated minority, and specific anti-discrimination measures considered unnecessary. It is encouraging, however, that the new government seems to have a different, more open, approach. The State Secretary for Labor already expressed the interest of the ministry to tackle the problem of discrimination against Roma – starting with the organization of workshops and conferences on this issue54.

The declared objective is to increase the employability of the Roma job seekers. For this the Program proposes various types of measures: increase the number of Roma employed in public works programs and collection of secondary raw materials for recycling; target Roma for education and training programs, support self-employment, provide incentives for employers who hire Roma persons, and hire Roma counselors in order to increase the ability of the employment offices to address the specific needs of the group.

1. Public works: there are two types of public works programs, one aimed at the construction of infrastructure in Roma settlements (Roma for Roma) and one dealing with the environmental protection, utility services, forestry and agriculture (Roma for the Local Community). The goal is to provide temporary work for 500 persons (100 persons per year, from 2004 to 2008). The programs should be organized by the local authorities. However, according to Branko Levačić, Governor of the Međimurje county, Međimurje county does not plan to finance any public works for Roma in the near future55. Although there is not a single regulation on public works, authorities does not think that lack of legislation would be a problem56.

2. Education and training programs: 200 persons will be included annually in three month training programs for different skills, from literacy classes to qualifications for certain jobs. The measure should be implemented jointly by the Ministry of Education and the Croatian Employment Institute, but it remains to be seen whether they will find financial resources for it, for none of these bodies received money from the budget for 2004.

3. Self-employment: includes preparation of business plans, business management courses, and start-up funds (10.000 Kunas – the equivalent of 1.250 euros per person). The responsible entities are the Ministry of Trades, Small and Medium Sized Enterprises and the Croatian Employment Institute and the objective is to assist 50 persons per year.

4. The fourth measure is called "Registration and inclusion of the Roma in the programs for preparation for employment" and is described as re-assessment of the working potential of unemployed Roma registered at the Croatian Employment Bureau. The underlying presumption is that "the majority of the Roma register with employment services only for the purpose of exercise of social welfare rights" and that therefore "it is necessary to assess their remaining ability to work". It is not clear which was the purpose and which are the expected results of this measure.

5. Another measure propose to hire 6 counselors in charge of mediation in the employment of the Roma in the Croatian Employment Bureau and train them on Roma culture, to educate them in the application of possible measures for the promotion of employment of the Roma and train them for structuring targeted motivation workshops for the needs of the Roma. It is not clear why it was not proposed from the beginning to hire 6 Roma as counselors instead of employing non-Roma and then spending money on training them on Roma culture. After discussing this issue, the Ministry agreed to start by employing one Roma person in the Croatian Employment Bureau in Zagreb, provided that the candidate meets the legal requirements for the job57, but Croatian Employment Bureau refused to employ Roma candidate saying that regulations on organization of the Bureau does not allow them to employ counselor for Roma58.

6. Developing a system for the collection of secondary raw material for recycling which would employ mostly Roma people. This program was supposed to run already in 2004, financed by CARDS or from other donors. However, the CARDS proposal for 2004 has been already submitted, and the people working on it have never been informed that they should incorporate a Roma-related funding request59. If no other sources of funding will be identified, the program will hopefully be included in the CARDS proposal for 2005.

On the substance, as formulated now, the measure does not go further than organizing Roma work on a daily basis, while investing in state and/or private companies. This is one of the typical examples of programs which might make a real change – as a significant part of the Roma population is presently involved in activities related to the collection of secondary raw materials – but also may end up by using Roma as pretext for obtaining money for the development of certain initiatives. In order to avoid an undesired course of action, the responsible entities must ensure effective participation of the beneficiaries in designing the program.

7. Incentives for employers. The last measure proposes employment co-financing.

Other employment-related measures:
Apart from the measures from the employment chapter of the Program, there are some other work related proposals: in the chapter that deals with Roma culture and tradition, there is an idea to educate and train Roma for their employment in media. Further, in the part on status issues there is a measure to employ persons speaking Romanes in the competent administrative bodies and in the part on education there is a measure to employ Roma assistants in kindergartens. It seems that the idea was to employ Roma assistants in primary schools as well but it is not articulated as a separate measure.

Roma policies at municipal level: Independently of National Program for Roma and prior to it, City of Zagreb at the end of 2003 introduced the Program of Social Policy of the City of Zagreb for the Period 2004-2007. The Program recognizes Roma as vulnerable and proposes additional care measures: to improve housing conditions (small communal activities in settlement Struge – water, cleaning, garbage etc); educational measures; respect for culture; building the cultural center for Roma and permanent cooperation with Roma NGOs60. In March 2003 City of Zagreb has create a Commission for Care about Roma Citizens. Members of the Commission are representatives of Roma organizations as well as of local authorities and relevant ministries. The Commission became more active at the beginning of 2004 and its main plan is to implement measures from the National Programme for Roma that are in the competence of local authorities, to make Roma cultural centre and to employ Roma counsellor in the City of Zagreb. The Commission does not have any decision making power and its decisions have to be approved by other local offices61.

3. Implementation and monitoring of the National Program for Roma

Institutional structures: The chapter on monitoring and implementation regulates only two measures: (i) establishing Commission for Monitoring the Implementation of the National Programme for Roma (hereafter: Commission), that is composed of Deputy Prime Minister as the President of the Commission, representatives of the relevant ministries and offices, representatives of Međimurje county, City of Zagreb, nongovernmental organization for human rights, Romani councils and associations; and (ii) obligation of the state administration bodies to plan the means for implementation which are not covered by their regular activities in the state budget for 2004.

In April 2004 the Commission brought its rules of conduct which has established five working groups (on integration of Roma in cultural and social life and implementation of international documents; on status rights and non-discrimination; on education, science and sport; on social rights and health protection and employment; on housing) which have the obligation to make a list of priorities. There are no more detailed guidelines for monitoring or implementation, and there is no mention of evaluation.

The Commission should submit a report to the Government on the implementation of the Programme once a year on the basis of the reports from individual ministries and other state bodies62. The members of the Commission for Monitoring of the Implementation of the Programme have been appointed in March 2004 in accordance with the Programme63. Due to the reorganization of the Government after the adoption of the Programme tasks established by the Programme and some members of the Commission will be reassessed according to the new competences64.

Regarding the implementation of the employment measures of the Programme, due to the complexity of the work and the challenges, it would be impossible for a single person to make the terms of reference for each of the six measures, to coordinate their implementation and also monitor progress in this field. In the Ministry of Economy, Labor and Entrepreneurship, there are plans to make a working group for that job and the participation of Roma is considered essential for successful implementation65.

The main challenges for implementation of the Programme are lack of funds; lack of institutional structures inside relevant ministries; lack of expertise of Roma participants and lack of a support mechanism to provide the Roma participants the know how they need (e.g. a fund to employ consultants, to cover the costs of their participation in this process, an effective participation programme organized together with an international organization etc.); the fact that the government has been restructured and now the responsible entities from the Programme do not exist (e.g. State Institute for the Protection of the Family, Motherhood and Youth, Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare, Ministry of Environmental Protection and Urban Planning); unwillingness/impossibility of some local authorities66 to finance Roma programs and need for clarification at ministerial level (e.g. some competent ministries, like Ministry for Family, War Veterans and Intergenerational Solidarity, does not have clear idea how the implementation mechanism should work and sees the Office for National Minorities as the only state body that should work on the implementation of the Program67).

On going projects: In spite of all financial and organizational problems, there are several projects that are being implemented already. Some of them have been initiated a couple of years ago, others start now. In order to make accurate analysis of the implementation process it is essential to make clear distinctions between projects which are developed as part of the national strategy and NGOs projects organized independently, which are not part of governmental efforts (e.g. events where the involvement of the government is limited to presentations at or attendance of workshops, conferences, etc).

Among on-going projects, the Office for National Minorities has mentioned: infrastructure works in the settlement Donja Dubrava in Međimurje, financed by the Japanese and Dutch governments; a Roma TV program in Čakovec for which the Office has already allocated the funds (the Office also contributes financially to a minority program of the Croatian Television); a seminar for young Roma leaders organized by the Office. The Ministry of Education published textbooks in Romani language and employed 12 Roma assistants in Međimurje schools. The City of Zagreb agreed to employ a Roma advisor for which the Caritas Essen will pay the salary for the first two or three years. Finally, the Ministry of Interior agreed to employ a Roma advisor who will be paid by the Ministry.

In the field of employment there is no program initiated yet.
Decade of Roma Inclusion: In July 2003 governments of Hungary, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia and Montenegro, and Slovakia endorsed the launch of the “Decade of Roma Inclusion,” called for by George Soros and the World Bank. The “Decade,” which spans 2005-2015, aims to accelerate and frame progress in improving the situation of Europe's Roma and to provide a framework for governments to set their own goals for Roma integration by setting of clear, quantitative national targets for improvements in economic status and social inclusion of the Roma population, and the establishment of the necessary information base to measure progress toward these targets; the development and implementation of national action plans to achieve those targets, and by regular monitoring of progress against agreed targets. A complementary Roma Education Fund, initiated by the World Bank, would scale up pilot projects to improve Romani education.68
In its participation in this project Croatian Government is preparing the Decade Action Plan for Croatia which. Since the goals and activities of this project and the National Program for Roma are very similar it has been decided that the same ministry and Roma representatives would be engaged in both projects. The Government started its activities in the field of education and is expected to do national action plan for employment after the first meeting of working group on employment that is expected to be held in Budapest at the beginning of June 2004.
4. The Role of key institutions in promoting equality in employment for Roma

The activities of the Croatian Employment Bureau are governed by the Act on Employment Mediation and Entitlements during Unemployment69. They include employment mediation in the country and abroad, vocational guidance, training for the purpose of increasing the employment of the labour force, insurance against unemployment, and action taken on the labour market with a view to fostering the geographical and occupational mobility of the labour force, as well as new employment and self-employment. The entire system is highly centralized: local branches of the Croatian Employment Service do not have competence to take decisions, they make proposals to the Zagreb Bureau and must obtain approvals before initiating any employment-related activity.

In May 2002 Council of Europe assisted Croatian authorities in organizing training workshop for the staff of local employment services working with Roma jobseekers. Many recommendations and conclusions to improve work of the employment service on the local level were adopted70, like to recruit a Roma as employment counselor, to develop contacts between employment service and Roma settlements, to develop skills profile of Roma community, to promote contacts between employers and Roma, to work towards a more formal partnership between employment service, Roma representatives and employers, to develop programs for disadvantaged young jobseekers, to assist employers with the recruitment of Roma by financing workplace training programs for newly recruited young Roma, to provide local/regional employment services with the resources to support self-employment / income generating projects in local Roma settlements, but not a single one has been implemented until today. As Vladimir Zebec, Head of the Čakovec Employment office explained, neither Croatian Employment Bureau nor local employment offices could implement recommended measures due to the lack of human and financial resources71.

There is no indication that any of the employment offices dealing with a significant number of Roma job seekers has developed up to date specific policies or plans to boost Roma employment. In the employment office in Čakovec, with the biggest Roma population, consultants were told that it is neither up to the employment office nor Croatian Employment Bureau to develop any special policy for Roma72.

At the moment there are ten private employment services73 in Croatia, mostly representative offices of foreign companies, but they are mostly oriented to management jobs.

Labor inspectorate is part of the State Inspectorate and its task is to control implementation of labor legislation74 but it is not competent for the discrimination at work any more because discrimination is no longer offence punishable by the administrative sanctions. Nevertheless, between 1995 and 2003, when inspectorate was competent for discrimination it did not initiate any procedure for discrimination in employment. According to Branko Jordanić, former Head of the State Inspectorate, his office did not process any Roma discrimination case simply because in Croatia Roma have no problem whatsoever in employment, "this institution deals with 650.000 cases per year and in the last 20 years I never saw a case related to employment discrimination of a Roma person", he said75.

V. Legislative Framework  

According to the Croatian Constitution76 Croatia is democratic and social state (art.1) that shall stimulate the economic progress and social welfare of its citizens (art.49/3); everyone shall have the right to work and enjoy the freedom of work and be free to choose his vocation and occupation, and all jobs and duties shall be accessible to everyone under the same conditions (art.54); every employee shall have the right to a fair remuneration, such as to ensure a free and decent standard of living to him and his family; maximum working hours shall be regulated by law; every employee shall have the right to a weekly rest and annual holidays with pay, and these rights may not be renounced; employees may, in conformity with law, participate in decision-making in the enterprise (art.55); the right of employees and of members of their families to social security and social insurance shall be regulated by law and collective agreements, rights in connection with child-birth, maternity and child care shall be regulated by law (art.56); all employees have the right to form trade unions (art.59).

Relevant international instruments

Republic of Croatia is member of the European Convention on Human Rights77 (including Protocol 1278); European Social Charter79; Additional Protocol to the European Social Charter Providing for a System of Collective Complaints80; Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities81; International Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination82 but without possibility of individual complaints under Article 14; UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education83; International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights84; ILO Convention No. 11185. Croatia is still not member of the Revised European Social Charter. Legally ratified international treaties are part of the internal legal order of the Republic of Croatia and apply over ordinary national legislation86.

Stabilization and Association Agreement between the Republic of Croatia and the European Communities and their Member States has been signed at the end of 2001. Croatia presented its application for Membership of the European Union on 21 February 2003. In its Opinion on the application of Croatia for membership of the European Union, the European Commission noted that “the Roma minority deserves special attention. […] Most Roma are not integrated into Croatian society and suffer discrimination in all fields of public life such as access to employment, health and political representation” (emphasis added).

Legislation addressing racial and ethnic discrimination in employment

According to the Croatian Constitution87 equality, national and gender equality, social justice, respect for human rights and rule of law are the greatest values of constitutional system and basis for interpretation of Constitution (art.3); everybody in Croatia has rights and freedoms regardless of his/her race, color, gender, language, religion, political or other belief, national or social origin, property, birth, education, social position or other characteristic and all are equal before the law (art.14); members of all national minorities shall have equal rights (art.15); all citizens of the Republic of Croatia and aliens shall be equal before the courts and administrative bodies (art.26); everyone shall have the right to the fair trial (art.29); any call for or incitement to war, or resort to violence, national, racial or religious hatred, or any form of intolerance shall be prohibited and punishable by law (art.39); everyone shall be guaranteed the right to freedom of association for the purposes of protection of their interests or promotion of their social, economic, political, national, cultural and other convictions and objectives (art.43); every citizen of the Republic of Croatia shall have the right, under equal conditions, to take part in the conduct of public affairs and to have access to public services (art.44).
According to the Constitutional Law on the Rights of National Minorities88 a national minority is a group of Croatian citizens whose members traditionally live in the territory of the Republic of Croatia, and whose members have ethnic, linguistic, cultural and/or religious features different from other citizens (art.5). Article 4/4 bans all discriminatory actions based on belonging to a national minority, and guarantees equal rights before law and equal protection of the law. Article 7/10 obliges the state to ensure protection from any sort of activity that endangers, or might endanger, the survival of minorities or the exercise of their rights and freedoms. Art.3/1 enables positive measures when it would benefit national minority. The law gives national minorities the right to be represented in the Parliament and in the local politics (national minority councils).
Labor law

Amendments to the Labor law89 from July 2003 introduced new provisions on antidiscrimination although discrimination based on race, skin color, religion, national or social origin was forbidden even before last amendments to the Labour law. The new provisions protect employment seekers and employees from direct discrimination, defined as every action caused by any of the basis (race, color etc.) by which a person is/was/could be put in disadvantaged position comparing to other person in comparable situation, as well as from indirect discrimination, defined as the situation when what seems like neutral provision, criteria or practice, put/could put a person in disadvantaged position in comparison with other persons because of his/her certain characteristic, status, orientation, belief or system of values that are basis for ban of discrimination (race, color etc.). Basis that are covered now are race, color, gender, sexual orientation, marital status, family obligations, age, language, religion, political or other belief, national or social origin, wealth, birth, social position, membership or nonmembership in political party, membership or nonmembership in trade union and physical or mental difficulties. Areas protected against discrimination are: employment conditions, including criteria for choice among candidates for certain job; promotions; vocational training, professional qualifications, change of qualifications; working conditions and all rights from employment and in connection with employment, equality of salaries included; firing; rights of members and activities in employers/employees associations or any other professional organization. Antidiscrimination provisions shall not be applied in situations when nature or conditions of certain work prevents it and when it is needed for special protection of certain categories of workers (disabled, elderly workers, pregnant women, mothers, beneficiaries of certain parents/adoptive parents/tutors rights).

Harassment, defined as any unwanted behavior caused by any of the basis (sex, race, color etc.) which is aimed to be or is violation of dignity of employment seeker or employee and which causes fear, humiliation, hostile or insulting environment, is considered a form of discrimination.

Employers are obliged to protect employee's dignity (prevention measures included) and to secure working conditions that would prevent harassment or sexual harassment; consider harassment as violation of working duties; employers with more than 20 employees have to appoint a person who would deal with complaints. The complaints must be examined within 8 days and all necessary measures undertaken.

In the case of discrimination in employment the victim has the right to compensation according to the general provisions on damages. The victim has to make a prima facie discrimination case and than the burden of proof shifts to the employer.

There are no administrative sanctions for discrimination. Before these amendments, the violation of equality clause was an offence for which the labor inspectorate had to initiate procedure, and the sanction was fine from 10.000 to 30.000 kunas (1.350 to 4.050 euros) for company and 3.000 to 10.000 (405 to 1.350 euros) for responsible person in company. Now victims of discrimination are not protected by the labor inspectorate. The only remedy they have is civil procedure for damages which means that they have to initiate expensive, long court procedures without foreseeable outcome.

The new Labour law does not regulate positive measures. Before July 2003 provision on positive action for underrepresented gender existed but it has been removed by the last amendments. There is an obligation of public sector employers to give priority to unemployed war veterans and unemployed members of immediate family of the killed and missing veterans, provided that the persons concerned meet the legal requirements and have the same qualifications as other job seekers not belonging to this group90. There is also provision on quota for employment of disabled persons in public sector91.

Antidiscrimination provisions of the Labor law do not regulate use of statistics nor the protection against victimization. Employment seeker who is victim of discrimination does not have the right to seek annulment of the labor contract signed with privileged candidate, as was the case in the previous Labor law.

According to ECRI "Croatia’s judicial system is impeded by an enormous backlog of cases estimated at over one million. There is also a problem with the enforcement of court decisions (…) This situation affects the application of legislation in the area of racism and discrimination, as it does legislation in other areas." 92.

Provisions related to employment of non-citizens

The Law on Aliens regulates employment of non-citizens93. Business permits are issued according to the system of quotas established by the Ministry of Labour and based on the migration policy and situation on labour market. Spouses and children of Croatian citizens who have residence in Croatia, persons with recognized asylum and aliens with permanent residence are allowed to work without permit. Otherwise, working without permit and doing business other than the one permit has been issued is punishable with the fine of 500 to 5000 kn (68 to 680 euros) and 300 to 3000 kn (40 to 400 euros). Violation of any regulation on particular economic activity, employment, labor or social insurance by the alien is punishable by the fine of 5000 to 10000 kn (680 to 1.350 euros). For 2004, Government's decision on quota94 provides 5000 working permits and they are prolongation of existing working permits.

Criminal law

According to the Croatian Criminal law95 violation of equality of citizens96, violation of the right to work or other right based on work97, racial or other discrimination98 and persecuting organizations or individuals for their pleading for equality99 are crimes punishable by imprisonment up to five years. Publicly expressing idea of superiority of any race or spreading racial hatred and animating to racial discrimination100 is a crime punishable to imprisonment up to three years. Although ECRI expressed its opinion101 that the Croatian authorities should send a message that racist crime will not be tolerated and recalled its general policy recommendation No 1 on defining racially motivated offences as specific offences or explicitly providing for racial motivation, racial discrimination and racially motivated crimes are still not prosecuted102.

Relevant legislation on public service

According to the Constitutional law on National Minorities members of national minorities has the right to be represented in the political bodies on state and local level as well as in the administrative and judicial bodies103. The Law on Civil Servants104 forbids giving privileges or violates someone's right due to his gender, race, ethnicity or other basis.

Non-discrimination and equality law

There is no comprehensive anti-discrimination legislation in Croatia. Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities105 noted that
it would be desirable to develop anti-discrimination legislation which would protect individuals from discrimination by both public authorities and private entities. In its Second Report on Croatia106 ECRI noted that "Croatia lacks civil and administrative legislation relating to discrimination in other key fields of life, such as housing, health, education, social security and the provision of goods and services, although members of ethnic and national minority groups may face discrimination in all of these fields. ECRI believes that such legislation not only provides an avenue of redress for individuals who are victims of discrimination, but it may also serve an important educative and awareness-raising function. In some countries, the introduction of a single body of anti-discrimination legislation covering discrimination in several fields of life, and providing for effective enforcement, has proved a valuable tool. ECRI therefore encourages the Croatian authorities to consider the possible introduction of such a body of legislation and to ensure that more effective judicial and administrative means of redress are established."

In its Second report on Croatia ECRI recommended establishment of specialized body at national level for combating racism and intolerance or to create a special competence in this field within the existing office of the Ombudsman, but there seems to be no intention of doing so. Although the work of Ombudsman office is quite important for victims of human rights, it is not sufficient arm for fight against discrimination.

Case Law

Discrimination of Roma in employment has been reported by every report dealing with the issue, as is described in details in Part VI, but there are no cases initiated nor conducted by the competent state bodies – public attorney, courts and labour inspection.

To rely on criminal law to address discrimination it is theoretical possibility, but it proves to be a hopeless attempt in practice.

In 2001 during local elections, Gordana Dumbović, deputy mayor of Petrinja and teacher by profession, said in a radio show that "we shall clean the country of the rubbish (…) not a singe member of minority, Serbian Gypsy, will not have peace in Petrinja nor anywhere else in Croatia (…) and minority person, poor Serbian who came back from motherland Serbia, he is neither man nor animal, animal does not deserve to be compared with him". In December last year Municipal Court in Kutina court found her not guilty for the racial discrimination.

Despite numerous attacks on Roma by skinheads, not a single one has been properly investigated nor procedured by the Public attorney’s office.

In his report for 2000, the Ombudsman criticized the public attorney’s office and the police for not prosecuting ethnic motivated crimes, so perpetrators, even when they are known, are not sanctioned107.

In its Second Opinion on Croatia108 ECRI stresses that “priority should be given to the full implementation of provisions aimed at combating racism and discrimination, and that implementation should be carried out in a non-discriminatory manner. The Croatian authorities are encouraged to examine current implementation more closely (for example by monitoring the number of cases reported, the action taken by the authorities and the outcomes) in order to undertake effective measures to improve the application of laws in this area."

According to the Initial Report of the Republic of Croatia on the Implementation of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights109 in the period of 1995 to 1998 8 criminal offences of violation of equality of citizens were reported, 2 were indicted and nobody was convicted for that crime.

At the biggest Croatian court, Zagreb Municipal court, and at the court in the county with the most significant Roma minority, Čakovec Municipal court, there are no civil cases for discrimination in employment110.

Main obstacles in challenging discrimination at work

There are many reasons why challenging Roma discrimination at work might be a painful exercise in Croatia. Some of them relate to the victims of discrimination, others to the gaps within the legal framework and/or to the inadequate enforcement of legal provisions. Finally there are problems connected to the persons who are expected to process ethnic discrimination complaints.

Lack of trust: Roma do not initiate legal proceedings even when they have very strong cases. There is an obvious lack of trust in the judicial system111. At the end they think that they would not be able to prove discrimination.

Lack of legal awareness: Due to the law level of general education of Roma, their level of legal awareness is very law. Most of them are not aware that remedies against discrimination do exist.

Availability of legal aid: The Croatian system of free legal aid does not work in an effective way that would help Roma in accessing justice112.

Fear of Victimization: There is also a fear of victimization and even smaller chances of finding a job in the future. When Roma did protest against segregation in Međimurje primary schools, governor announced how much Roma received for social benefit in the previous year, that Roma make 76% of all people for whom health insurance is paid by the tax payers etc113. Roma think that they do not have a chance to win such a case.

Lengths of proceedings: Court cases are long-lasting and even the labour cases, for which law prescribes urgency, can last for many years.

Lack of understanding of professionals: The other problem is lack of knowledge on discrimination on the side of the professionals – in the case initiated because of the segregation in Međimurje schools it has been discovered that it is not clear what discrimination is.

Public Education and Awareness

Unfortunately, government has not made any efforts to publicize anti-discrimination norms and combat racist attitudes against Roma. Measures to promote inter-ethnic tolerance seem to be inadequate. Views of tolerance and intercultural dialogue are not reflected in the statements and acts of authorities114, and the authorities at the local level are very often promoters of intolerance115. Neither former nor present government leaders have made any efforts to speak about against racism toward Roma and to make clear that racist attitudes and actions toward Roma are unacceptable.

Although Law on Telecommunications116 calls on broadcasters to promote inter-ethnic understanding, many print and electronic media report in a manner that strengthens negative stereotypes of Roma117.

Ministry of Education has planned a program in primary schools that teaches children about the promotion of tolerance, non-discrimination and democratic values. This includes the active involvement of children in raising awareness about combating discrimination. For instance, children from secondary schools participated in the translation into Croatian of the European Commission publication “Who? Me? Racist?”.

National Committee for Human Rights Education is an advisory body of the Government that is in charge of drafting and monitoring the implementation of the National Program for Human Rights Education in the educational institutions of Croatia from pre-schools to higher education and adult education.

VI. Racial Discrimination in Employment  

Intergovernmental organizations have systematically reported on Roma being discriminated in Croatia in various fields of social life, employment included118. The prejudices against Roma (that they work only until the first salary, that they abuse alcohol, that they steal etc.), are very often, even by the officials. Many Roma complain that when they call for advertisement by phone without saying their names they are welcomed and invited for an interview, but when they show up they are told that the job is already taken. Officials confirm that employers do not want to employ Roma119.

i. Evidence of discrimination

Statistical evidence: Although Constitutional Law on National Minorities guarantees right of representation in state administration there are no Roma in the judiciary or in public administration120. For other sectors there are no ethnically disaggregated data. In the county of Međimurje, Roma make less than 4,5% of the whole population, but 20% of the all registered unemployed121.

Attitude reports: In her interview to Roma magazine Budućnost, Blaženka Novak, head of the Office for Social Affairs of the Međimurje County said that "the fact is that Roma are not wanted workers due to their lack of education and their way of life. It is not that they are not trusted but because they do not like that system of responsibility where one is obliged to do something. Unfortunately, we all live like that so the experience of our employees are well known – Roma is a good worker for two or three months, and than he gets fed up and he stops coming to work. Because of such an experience we do have big problems with employment of Roma, but I think that they should think more about it. They are mostly employed in public companies, most often communal, but those companies only offer jobs to person with low level of education such as of Roma."

In their interview with the local consultant Janja Balent and Jelena Čugalj from the Centre of Social Care in Čakovec said: "when they (Roma) are in Zagreb on meetings they like to talk how they want to work, but when they are offered to work they do not want to work" and "there is antagonism of employers towards Roma because of alcohol abuse, criminality and irregular work attendance".

Reports of the victims of discrimination: N.B. lives in Zagreb where she was born 50 years ago. She is unemployed single mother with two grown up unemployed children. In the last ten years she worked only once as a seasonal worker for three summer months in one hotel at the seaside. She is registered at the Croatian Employment Bureau but they never offered her any job. When she sees job advertisements and call by phone she is told that the job is available, but when she goes in person she is told that the place has been taken. Very often, when she calls for a job of housekeeping or taking care of elderly people, she is told openly that they need Croatian catholic woman. She does not know what are her rights regarding discrimination, but she doubts that she could achieve anything. She wrote to president Mesić, and earlier to president Tuđman, but did not get any answer.

Jurisprudence: There is no jurisprudence on discrimination in employment.

Conclusions on discrimination of Roma at work: There is practically no Roma employed by non-Roma or by public employer on the permanent basis. Authorities are aware of the unwillingness of non-Roma employers to employ Roma but they refuse to call it discrimination and to see it as the problem they should deal with. They claim that there is no obligation on the side of the employer to employ certain person. Therefore there are no measures to monitor neither frequency of discrimination against Roma in employment nor prejudice among employment personnel. The government also claims that ethically based statistics would violate constitutional rights of the citizens. Croatian employment Bureau does not keep any ethnically sensitive statistic either. People working in the employment offices make conclusions on ethnicity of Roma based on their names, address and skin color.

ii. Administrative Practices

It seems that both Roma and employment offices staff think that registration of unemployed Roma at the employment bureau is useless. Roma do not believe that employment office would do anything good for them, to find a job or to organize vocational training, and employment office staff think that Roma do not want to find a job and that they are registered only to get social benefit. They confirm that employers have prejudice towards Roma, that Roma do not want to work, that they are alcohol abusers working only to the first salary, that they steal, but it is not their task to fight those prejudices and they strongly deny existence of any discrimination.

One official at the local employment office said that although Roma often change names to cover their Roma origin, he could recognize Roma by their smell. He complains that Roma do not want to work and that employers have prejudice towards Roma, but at the same time he confirms that those Roma who are employed proved to be good workers. He does not see the fight against discrimination in employment to be in the competence of the employment service, and even if it would be their job they do not have resources, human, financial or technical, for such a task.

VII. Access to Vocational Training 

Ordinance on Secondary School Education of Adults122 regulates secondary education of adults, including registered unemployed people. The Law does not stipulate any details on the right to vocational training of the person registered at the Croatian Employment Bureau. The Law on Mediation in Employment establishes that the education for employment falls within the competence of the Croatian Employment Bureau, but it does not provide further guidance on the Bureau's obligation to organize vocational training. However, it does provide that trainees are entitled to receive financial aid and compensation of travel costs during and for the training.

Training needs of Roma: There is no any assessment of the training needs of Roma and there is no policy measures specifically aimed at determining to which extent Roma have access to vocational training.
Roma issues are not mentioned/incorporated or taken into consideration in the national vocational training system strategies.

One of the main barriers Roma encounter when trying to enroll in vocational training programs is the requirement to have had finished primary school. This requirement, introduced with the intention to encourage literacy and school attendance, has in practice adverse effect: people who otherwise would be perfectly able to perform simple physical work, are barred from acquiring any kind of skills, and forced into the grey economy. The only way out is to enroll in Second Chance Education programs – which do exist, but do not reach all those who need them and are not particularly successful.

In 2003 the Ministry of Education initiated a Second Chance program for persons who did not finish primary school. In Međimurje, many Roma men enrolled (about 110 in the first group), but very small number of Roma women123. The results of this new program on the employment situation of the Roma participants are to be seen.

Young Roma women encounter an additional barrier: at the age when they could undertake vocational training they have to take care of young children, and the Second Chance programs are not designed to respond to this type of needs.

Employment seekers and relevant public officials agree that there is no coordination between vocational training institutions and the employers so that trainings are organized without proper assessment of the labor market needs. The cooperation between vocational training institutions and Croatian Employment Bureau is also insufficient. The biggest institution of that kind - Pučko otvoreno učilište in Zagreb, with more than 10.000 students per year for 100 different programs, make only 10% of their programs in cooperation with the Croatian Employment Bureau.

For the last several years Employment Bureau has not organized vocational training for "unknown employer" – when job seekers are trained for certain profession without special request by a specific employer – which is one of the most needed forms of vocational training for marginalized groups such as Roma. The authorities seem to be aware of the need for a more flexible vocational training approach, and are considering reintroducing this type of training124.

VIII. Romani Women 

Researches indicate that in Croatia for women in general it is more difficult to find a job. “Traditional” thinking is still prevalent: women's role is to take care of the house and children, family life is affected if the woman works full time, when a man and a woman have equal qualifications man should get a job; female employers are characterize by discipline, team work, loyalty while male employees are devoted to their aims, competitive, and able of independent decision making. Women's right organizations point out to sexual harassment at job interviews, lack of programs for employment of women older than 40, the fact that women are fired first for economical reasons, lack of good programs for change of qualifications, the fact that women are more often employed on limited period and of lack of sanctions for discrimination.125

To all these challenges, Romani job seekers have to face a series of additional factors, related to their ethnic background and to the marginalization situation they are coming from126. Romani women are typically described as persons without control over their own lives, obliged by their parents to leave the school and forced into early marriages, and then expected to take care and serve for the rest of their lives the family of their husbands. They are routinely portrait as victims of domestic violence, obliged by abusive husbands to carry as many children as possible, in order to obtain social benefits and children allowances. As mothers they are also frequently accused of neglecting their children, sending them to beg and exploiting their work. Low educational level and virtually no employment expectations for Romani women are presented as a cultural feature of the group, rather then as a result of poverty and social exclusion.

This description is in sharp contradiction with the internal projection of the community, where women -- and particularly adult women -- are respected and considered the resistance pillars of the community. They keep ethnic identity and traditions alive. They safeguard the unity of the family, administrate the money and ensure the communication with the outside world. Their purity and cleanness is highly appreciated, and their fertility, the ability of bringing children into the world is one of the most valued qualities.

These two very different description of the role and the value attached to the Romani women indicate that there is a serious communication gap between the majority and the Roma community, where the former is not able to rise awareness on women employment issues and the latter uses in a systematic manner the stereotypes of “unemployable” Roma woman as justification for not making more efforts to facilitate their access into the labor market. For example, domestic violence and gender discrimination is a problem that all Croatian women face. There is no comparative research into the level of violence within families belonging to various ethnic groups and no indications that Romani women are victimized by their family members and community more than other women. Every now and then the press publishes sensationalist reports on pre-arranged marriages, stirring majority indignation, but there is no serious public debate, Romani women are never invited to present their standpoints and the state has no policy to tackle it. In fact, one research shows that most Roma (89%) think that their daughters should not marry before they are 18127. It seems that majority population, reluctant to communicate with Romani men, is more inclined to communicate with Romani women. That is the reason why there are more Romani women than men selling things on the market and working seasonally on the farms. The mentioned research shows that inside Romani family communication with the authorities is seen as the task of wife and not of husband.

In the segregated settlements of Medjimurie, most Romani women drop out of school in lower grades and have no qualification at all. At the time when they could get second chance education they already have children. Second chance education programs are not taking into consideration the needs of young mothers coming from disadvantaged groups. Only recently, authorities launched programs of including Romani children in kindergartens and other pre-school programs. However, there are no links between pre-school education programs and Romani women employment programs.

Formally registered as “unemployed”, and perceived as “taking advantage” of the country social security system, Romani women work hard, as all women living in poverty in the world. Apart from taking care of the children, working in the garden, growing vegetables, cleaning the house, washing the cloth and taking care of the physical, psychological and financial needs of the extended family, many of them also participate in lucrative activities, together with their husbands. In Zagreb many Romani women sell second hand clothes in the market. In the Sisak region there are settlements where almost the entire population collects scrap metal (e.g. Capraške Poljane) – women working on equal footing with their husbands. In Međimurje, Romani women are frequently asked by local farmers to perform seasonal works in agriculture. All over the country, as a last resort against poverty, Romani women go out and beg.

In spite of the complexity of the many issues related to the employment of Romani women, the social and policy response is insignificant. The Roma NGOs do not have specialized employment programs, and, as a rule, and do not have sufficient expertise to design such programs. Mainstream women organizations do not pay sufficient attention to Roma women issues. Projects aimed to provide incentive to employers are not placing special emphasis on the need to actively promote the employment of Roma women. There is no agency or NGO providing micro-credits for Romani women.

IX. Romani Youth 

Youth in general are vulnerable group from the employment point of view because statistics show that significant percentage of young people will never get employment. Chances for Roma youth to get employment are even smaller due to lack of education and qualifications, but they are not expressly identified as vulnerable group by the relevant state bodies. It is not possible to obtain relevant information about Romani youth from the existing data basis used by employment authorities. There are no labour market programs targeting Roma youth. Although National Program for Youth proposes certain measures for employment of Roma youth there is no implementation of any of those measures.

X. Inter-sectoral Relations 

Education: Lack of education and qualifications is the main obstacle to employment of Roma. Most Roma - 86,06% did not finish primary school and 38,52% are illiterate128. Still, even those Roma who finish secondary school, and the number is raising, are unemployed and that is a demotivation factor for parents to keep their children in school.

Most Roma children leave school long before the last grade. For example, according to information from the Međimurje County Department on Education, Culture, Information, Sports, and Technical Education, in the school year 2001/2002, in four of the schools in the County (Podturen, Orehovica, Macinec, and Kuršanec), the total number of Romani children enrolled from the 1st to 4th grade was 398, while their number from the 5th to the 8th grade was 122, or more than 3 times lower.

The reason for that might be the fact that many Romani children, primarily in Međimurje county, face discrimination in the primary schools and are relegated to substandard segregated classes129. The practice of segregating Romani children at school was noted by the Croatian Ombudsman in his 2000 Annual Report which stated that “discrimination [towards Roma] finds expression in the segregation of Romani children in most of the schools in the Međimurje County under the pretext of lack of hygiene habits and poor command of Croatian language by the Romani children".

Although Croatian legislation does recognize privileges for certain categories130 when applying for a place in pupils/student houses or to university, there are no affirmative action measures for Roma children.

Housing: There are some hundred Roma communities around the country. Forty of them are segregated settlements placed outside the building zone, with inadequate or no infrastructure and where all or many of the housing units are built without authorization. The rest are situated at the margins of the cities or villages and are often partly within the building zone of the municipality and partly outside of it; some houses being built with authorization and some illegally. In some cases, there are Roma neighborhoods in the center of the municipalities, or families living shanties or old abandoned houses within the limits of the cities. There is a strong pattern of residential segregation along ethnic lines. Almost no Roma own private vehicles and they are dependent of public transportation. It appears, however, that many Roma settlements have been let outside the public transportation network. In some cases, bus lines which used to serve Romani neighborhoods are cancelled (e.g. in Slavonski Brod - the bus line which was connecting the Romani settlements with the city center was canceled when the near by factory has been closed and the number of passengers decreased.). In others, the bus line passes along the Roma settlements, but there is no bus station there (e.g. in Kozari Put). 131

Majority of Croatian Roma are settled for hundreds of years. Their mobility in search for work is greater than the mobility of other groups only to the extent that they are poorer and do not have properties which would tie them to certain places.

Discriminatory provisions and practices in allocation of social flats, to which is added the reluctance of the non-Roma to rent or sell houses or apartments to Roma families, makes difficult or impossible moving to places where there would be more chances for work (e.g. to the seaside for seasonal work in summer). Comparing to Romani men, Romani women are even less mobile, because they are take care of house and the children and, as a rule, are not able to drive.

Health: Non-governmental organizations report a generally bad health status among Roma living in segregated settlements where housing conditions are deplorable, water is usually insufficient, sanitation deficient and heating missing. People are more exposed to infectious diseases; jaundice and tuberculosis are allegedly widespread.132

Social protection: The World Bank133 estimates that only 4% of the population of Croatia live in absolute poverty, i.e. with less than 4,30 US Dollars a day. Nonetheless, these 4% of the population live in extreme deprivation, meet with great difficulties when trying to find a roof , have a very poor diet, a very low educational level and are trapped in the vicious circle of misery. The contrast with the living standards of the majority of the population is all the more striking as most people in Croatia live better and better whereas the poor get poorer and poorer.

Roma make 13,56% of all persons receiving social benefit134 which means that more than 50% of Roma receive social benefit.

The authorities claim that Roma get more money from social benefit than they would receive for work, that therefore they are not motivated to work and that they register at the employment bureau only because it is the requirement for social benefit.

According to the answers to the European Union questionnaire future developments and reforms of social protection in Croatia will be focused on the rationalization of social expenditure and transformation of the social security system, with the aim of reducing the responsibility of the state and increasing the responsibility of individuals, the market, family and the civil society. In the future, the social protection system will probably include basic social security guaranteed by the state (social safety net), compulsory insurance based on employment and additional private insurance. The new social protection system should offer basic security (guaranteed by the state), but would also allow for private initiative and entrepreneurship. It is already now evident that security in the field of health and pension insurance will depend on individual choices and individual financial possibilities. In addition, it is also intended to integrate in the social security system and social safety net the elements of active social policy (known as "workfare elements"), with the aim of building a welfare state based on the idea of welfare mix (partnership between the state, the private sector and the civil society). Social protection should not have just a passive income-support role, but also the role of social integration.

XI. Existing Employment Projects 

The only vulnerable group for which there are special employment initiatives on the state level are war veterans. On the local level authorities are more sensitive, so in Zagreb one can find special program of public works for homeless. For Roma there is in Međimurje a program of employing Roma assistants in kindergartens for Roma children and in primary schools.

Although it seems that authorities sees public works as the main solution for the unemployment of Roma there has been no such projects for them in the last several years except the program of temporary kindergartens in Roma settlements in Medjimurje county, organized as public works, that employed 13 Roma and 13 non-Roma.

There are no special programs to provide incentives for employers who hire Roma nor self-employment programs like supporting credits, business management training etc.

XII. Conclusions and Recommendations  

Conclusions:

In the Republic of Croatia there is a serious lack of reliable data on Roma needed for policy making. There are wide discrepancies between official statistics and the actual number of Roma, but authorities are reluctant to create adequate disaggregated socioeconomic data on Roma. Nevertheless, existing data show that the unemployment rate of Roma is much higher than of majority population and more that 50% of Roma live on social benefit. It seems that main causes for such unemployment rate are law educational level of Roma and discrimination. Roma women are in particularly difficult situation due to the greater drop-out of schools and as a rule lack of any qualifications.

Roma issues are not mainstreamed in other relevant policies, like policies on employment, on poverty, on gender equality etc.

In October 2003 Croatian Government adopted National Program for Roma that proposes specific measures in ten areas: social and political participation, culture, status issues, discrimination and legal aid, education, health care, employment, social welfare, protection of youth and family and housing. The Program requires 2.700.000 Euros, but only 10% has been allocated for 2004, none of it for the Croatian Employment Service that has requested 530.000 Euros for implementation of the measures in the field of employment. Although the Program has planned to start implementing most of the measures in 2004 it has obviously been unrealistic.

Employment chapter of the Program identifies four basic obstacles to the integration of Roma in the labor market – low educational level; Roma refusal to attend vocational training programs; employers prejudices toward Roma and Roma’s lack of confidence in the system. It remains to be seen how would the proposed measures that still need further elaboration – public works, creating system of collection of secondary raw materials, target Roma for education and training programs, support for self-employment, incentives for employers who hire Roma and Roma counselors in Croatian Employment Service – solve identified problems.

Program does not elaborate in details institutional structures, monitoring, implementation and evaluation. Due to the complexity of the work on implementation of the Program it would be a challenge for the Government and its ministries to organize institutional structures inside relevant ministries and to solve the problem of the lack of funds. The problem of lack of expertise of Roma participants and the lack of support mechanism to provide them the know-how they need remains to be solved.

As far as discrimination is concerned it seems that the problem has not been approached effectively enough. On the one hand neither Croatian Employment Service nor labor inspectorate consider themselves competent to fight discrimination in employment, and on the other – despite good regulation on discrimination in employment and numerous reports on discrimination of Roma and some other minorities there are no discrimination cases before Croatian courts. For Roma, mains obstacles in challenging discrimination at work are lack of trust in the judicial system, lack of legal awareness, lack of effective system of legal aid, fear of victimization and length of court proceedings.

Although low educational level of Roma has been identified as the main obstacles to the employment of Roma, second chance education for them has not been organized in satisfactory manner and it does not have any special measures that would help to include Roma women. Further, the regulation that requires primary education as the precondition for vocational training has discriminatory impact on Roma.

Recommendations:

To the Government
to provide funds for the implementation of the National Program for Roma
to develop sectorial policy for the employment of Roma
to create implementation, monitoring and evaluation mechanisms in the Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship
to mainstream Roma issues within other relevant national programs
to create measures for the effectiveness of the administrative and judicial means by which an individual may seek redress for alleged discrimination
to adopt comprehensive antidiscrimination legislation following the EU Race Directive or to create antidiscrimination legislation for other areas beside labor law
to create specialized body with the task to combat discrimination, racism and intolerance at national level, to promote equality and tolerance, to encourage and help victims of discrimination to bring complaints and to undertake research, surveys and awareness-raising activities
to undertake in-depth research to identify various forms of discrimination against Roma, gather comparative statistical data, examine discriminatory effect of employment policies and regulations
to undertake surveys on Roma needed for the policy making
to create official system of data collection based on recognized international standards for data collection and protection with appropriate oversight and safeguards to document the situation and needs of Roma and to record all types of discrimination and to create adequate disaggregated socioeconomic data for proper policymaking
to organize antidiscrimination, gender and culture sensitivity training for authorities and staff who work with Roma
to organize awareness raising campaigns to encourage Roma to participate in the census process
to realize significance of preschool preparation for the life opportunities of children and to include Roma children in ethnically mixed kindergartens and primary schools
to create codes of conduct for administration staff on antidiscrimination
to organize second chance education for Roma with special measures for ensuring participation of Roma women
to create a system that would eliminate discriminatory impact of the regulation on primary education as the requirement for vocational training

To the Croatian employment Service
to actively promote partnership with NGOs in the field of employment
to design programs aimed to involve employers, rise awareness and influence recruitment practices
to issue clear guidelines for local offices on how to question and challenge discriminatory practices of employers
to create and support the institution of Romani employment counselors at local levels and on a national scale

To Roma NGOs
to make sure that their representative in the implementation commission has the necessary expertise in various areas of employment and sufficient logistic support to participate effectively to the works of the commission (e.g. a team of experts which can provide him/her advise)
to facilitate identification and selection of Roma counselors in local employment offices, and then create a specialized network
to contact Roma NGOs in other countries and exchange experience and good practices
to improve the foreign languages, advocacy and lobbying skills of the staff involved in policy development
to pay special attention to the monitoring and evaluation capacities of the organizations, and, if necessary, seek and participate to monitoring and evaluation training courses

To non-Roma NGOs
to identify the issues which are of common concern with Roma organizations and support their advocacy efforts, building issue coalitions and participating to awareness rising campaigns
to design Roma related projects only with wide consultation of beneficiaries
to employ Roma on Roma related projects and/or to take young Roma as interns

XIII. Bibliography 

1. Structure of Roma Families and Understanding of Content of Parenthood (Struktura romskih obitelji i poimanje sadržaja roditeljstva u njima), State Bureau for Protection of Family, Motherhood and Youth, dr. Slobodan Uzelac and others, scientific research, 2002
2. Employers Attitutes towards Womens' Profesional and Family Activities (Stavovi poslodavaca prema profesionalnoj i obiteljskoj angažiranosti žena), State Bureau for Protection of Family, Motherhood and Youth, prof.dr.sc. Smiljana Leinert-Novosel, scientific research, 2002
3. Avoiding the Dependency Trap – The Roma in Central and Eastern Europe, A Regional Human Development Report, United National Development Program, Regional Bureau for Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States, Bratislava 2002
4. Migrants, Minorities and Employment – Exclusion, Discrimination and Anti-discrimination in 15 Member States of the European Union, European Monitoring Centre for Racism and Xenophobia Comparative Study, October 2003
5. Information provided by the Government to the Questionnaire of the European Commission, Zagreb 2003
6. Strategies Agains Unemployment (Strategije protiv nezaposlenosti), Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Zagreb, 2001
7. Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorites, Opinion on Croatia adopted on 6 April 2001
8. Written Comments of the European Roma Rights Center Concerning the Republic of Croatia For Consideration by the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination at its 60th Session, March 4-5, 2002
9. Roma / Gypsies: A European Minority, Minority Rights Group International, Report, by Jean-Pierre Liegeois and Nicolae Gheorghe, October 1995
10. Racial Discrimination and Violence against Roma in Europe, Statement submitted by the European Roma Rights Center for consideration by the UNCERD at its 57th Session on the occasion of its Thematic Discussion on Roma, August 15-16, 2000, January 2001
11. CERD General Recommendation XXVII Discrimination against Roma, Adopted at its fifty-seventh session, August 16, 2000
12. Council Directive 2000/43/EC of June 29, 2000
13. The ERRC in Croatia, Field report by Savelina Danova and Rumyan Russinov, summer 1998
14. Concluding observations of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination : Croatia. 21/05/2002. CERD/C/60/CO/4
15. Women and Work, B.a.B.e. Be active, be emancipated, Zagreb, 2000
16. Round table Roma rights in education (HHO, PILI and ERRC), Zagreb, 23 and 24 January 2004
17. ECRI Report on Croatia, Strasbourg, November 1999
18. ECRI Second report on Croatia, Strasbourg, 3 July 2001
19. Romani magazine Budućnost / Anglunipe, publisher Better future Zagreb
20. Magazine Međimurje, nr. 17, 1990
21. Report from the meeting with representatives of the Government of the Republic of Croatia about National Program for Roma, Zagreb, June 8-9, 2001, report prepared by Ina Zoon
22. Report submitted by Croatia pursuant to art.25, para 1 of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, March 1999
23. Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Mission to Croatia, Status report no. 13, December 2003
24. Breaking the Barriers – Romani Women and Access to Public Health Care, European Monitoring Centre on Racism and Xenophobia
25. Roma in Croatia Today (Romi u Hrvatskoj danas), Report from the round table, Zagreb, Centar za zaštitu ljudskih prava, Zagreb, 1998
26. Initial Report of the Republic of Croatia on the Implementation of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1999
27. Magdalenić, Ivan: Some determines of the ethnic distance (Neke determinante etničke distance), Social Care Studies Review (Ljetopis Studijskog centra socijalnog rada), nr. III., p.37-50, 1996
28. Magdalenić, Ivan: Families and Households in the Republic of Croatia (Obitelji i domaćinstva u Republici Hrvatskoj – nekoliko statističkih pokazatelja), Social Politics Review (Revija za socijalnu politiku), no. 1, p. 111-114, 1995
29. Lovrić, B: Croatian Roma at the Beginning of the Third Millenium (Hrvatski Romi na pragu trećeg tisućljeća), Final paper at the Social Welfare Studies at the Zagreb University, 2002
30. Radović, Lj.: List of books, articles and publications on Roma published from 1990 to 2000 in the Republic of Croatia (Popis knjiga, članaka i serijskih publikacija o Romima tiskanih od 1990. do 2000, godine u Republici Hrvatskoj), Review on Social Researches (Društvena istraživanja), no.2-3., p.337-344, Zagreb, 2000
31. Rožman, Krešimir: Ban of Discrimination in Labour Relations, Croatian Law Review 9/2003
32. Štambuk, Maja: Roma in Social Territory of Croatia (Romi u društvenom prostoru Hrvatske), Review on Social Researches (Društvena istraživanja), Zagreb, no. 46/47, 2000
33. Zoon, Ina: Report on obstacles facing the Roma minority of Croatia in accesing different categories of rights and namely citizenship, housing, health and social assistance, September 2002

XIV. Annexes 

National Program for Roma (in English)
Decision on Appointing President and Members of Commission for Monitoring the Implementation of the National Programme for Roma

THE GOVERNMENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

THE NATIONAL PROGRAM FOR THE ROMA

Zagreb, October 2003

T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S

I. INTRODUCTION.......................................................................................................... 1

II. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ROMA IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA...............................…………………………………………………….................. 4

III. HARMONIZATION OF THE PROGRAM WITH THE INTERNATIONAL TREATIES IN THE FIELD OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND MINORITY RIGHTS………………………………………………………….……........................9

IV. INCLUSION OF THE ROMA IN SOCIAL AND POLITICAL LIFE ....................................................................................................................…..13

V. THE PRESERVATION OF THE TRADITIONAL CULTURE OF THE ROMA ........…………………………………………………………………......................... 17

VI. STATUS RELATED ISSUES …………………………………………………......22

VII. LEGAL AID AND FIGHT AGAINST DISCRIMINATION …………….…………27

VIII. UPBRINGING AND EDUCATION ………………………………………………..30

IX. HEALTH CARE………………………………………………..……………………38

X. EMPLOYMENT ……………………………..…………………………………… ..44

XI. SOCIAL WELFARE ……………………….……………………………………..49

XII. PROTECTION OF THE FAMILY, MATHERHOOD AND YOUTH .……………55

XIII. TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING ……..…………………………….………..60

XIV. MONITORING OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL PROGRAM FOR THE ROMA …………… ………………….…………………………………..64

I INTRODUCTION

According to estimates, more than 30,000 Roma live in the Republic of Croatia

The Roma are marginalized to a significant degree in almost all social and public activities

The life conditions of the Roma are worse than the average life conditions of the majority population and of other national minorities

I INTRODUCTION


Equality is guaranteed to members of all national minorities in the Republic of Croatia, and freedom, equal rights, national equality and gender equality, social justice and respect for human rights are among the highest values of its the constitutional order (Articles 3 and 15 of the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia, hereinafter "The Constitution"). Article 14 of the Constitution prescribes that " Everyone in the Republic of Croatia shall enjoy rights and freedoms, regardless of race, colour, gender, language, religion, political or other belief, national or social origin, property, birth, education, social status or other characteristics. All shall be equal before the law." The Constitutional Act on the Rights of National Minorities and the system of legislation in the Republic of Croatia which protects human rights and rights of national minorities are based on these constitutional guidelines".

The Roma are a national minority which, according to the 2001 census makes up 0.21% of the population, that is there are 9,463 of them. However, according to estimates, a significantly larger number of Roma live in the Republic of Croatia, between 30,000 and 40,000. The difference between the determined and the estimated number of the Roma is to the largest degree the consequence of the decision by the Roma themselves to declare themselves during the census as members of some other nationality, not as Roma, but also because of unresolved issues related to their status.

Unfortunately, due to their poor education and non-inclusion in formal forms of work, their specific way of life and other characteristics, the Roma are marginalized economically, spatially, in terms of culture and politically to a greater or lesser degree in the Republic of Croatia, as in many other countries where they live.

Having found that the position of the Romany community is more difficult than the position of other minority communities in Europe, the Council of Europe and the European Union have paid special attention to issues related to the Roma in recent years, and encouraged the member countries as well as other countries in the region to resolve the problems of the Roma in a systematic manner, with a view to overcoming the inherited gap and improving the life conditions of the Roma as soon as possible. Here, they have appealed in their resolutions and recommendations for a multidisciplinary and systematic approach to the solution of problems in all fields, and especially advocating the realization of children's rights, the provision of education, health care and social care, appropriate housing and eradication of discrimination and segregation on any grounds (racial, national, religious, sexual…). Special attention is being paid to the position of the Roma in transition countries, because the economic and social difficulties these countries are faced with make their position additionally more difficult.

The position of the Roma and their life conditions have been on the margins of social interest for years, which has contributed to the significant deterioration of the quality of their life compared with the average quality of life of the majority population. This relates to their status in society, to the way in which their education, health and social care are organised, to the possibilities of preserving national identity, solving status related issues, employment, their presentation in the media, political representation and the like.

Deeming that the Roma cannot overcome the existing gap on their own, and determinately striving to change the existing situation, with a view to exercising the rights guaranteed by the Constitution and the legal system of the Republic of Croatia, and removing all the forms of discrimination, the Government of the Republic of Croatia is adopting the National Program for the Roma (hereinafter: "The Program").

The Program is based on the provisions contained in international documents on human rights and the rights of national minorities to which the Republic of Croatia is a party. The experience of other countries which are resolving the problems of Roma in a systematic manner has been taken into account. The Roma, without whose acceptance and assumption of responsibility the changes would not be possible, have themselves participated in the creation of the Program.

Ministries and other state bodies competent for this subject matter, councils of the Romany national minority, representatives of Romany associations, Members of Parliament representing national minorities, local and regional self-government, associations for the protection of human rights and international organisations and institutions participated in the drafting of the text of the National Program for the Roma. Four topical seminars were held, in which representatives of the Roma as well as domestic and foreign experts participated. The working draft of the National Program was the subject of public debate, during which several consultative meetings were organized, especially with the competent bodies of the counties in which the Roma live.

* * *

The intention of this Program is to help the Roma in a systematic manner to improve the life conditions and to become involved in the social life and the decision-making processes in the local and broader communities, while not loosing their own identity, culture and tradition.

The bodies of state administration, local and regional self-government, other governmental and non-governmental institutions, both domestic and foreign and foreign associations, international organisations, the Roma and Roma associations as well as other interested citizens of Croatia will participate in the implementation of the Program.

The means for the implementation of the Program will be provided from the State Budget, the budgets of local and regional self-government units, from donations and other sources.

II. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ROMA IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA


The Roma have been settled on the territory of the Republic of Croatia from the 14th century
The Romany minority in the Republic of Croatia is not homogenous: they speak different languages, they belong to different religious confessions
The position of the Roma is marginalized
The Program relates to the improvement of the life conditions and the better inclusion of the Roma in the social community, with the preservation of their own personality

II. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ROMA IN THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIA

Historical sources dealing specifically with the origins and beginnings of the migration of the Roma are few. There are many theories about the origins of the Roma and the reasons for the initiation of the migration process. The Roma themselves, following long isolation from the world around them and the wide variety elements of language, folklore, customs and legends they have adopted, have made it difficult for scientists investigating the issue of their origins. According to historical and linguistic sources, it may be concluded that the Roma originate from North West India (Dardistan, Karfiristan), the area around the River Ganges, and the migration of the Roma took place for many centuries from India, via Afghanistan and Persia. Some of the tribes of the southern groups moved in the direction of Syria, Egypt (probably by North West Africa via Gibraltar to Spain – Gitani), whilst most of the Romany tribes moved through Turkey across the Bosphorus and came to Europe (in the 10th to the 14th centuries the Roma remained in Turkey and Greece).

For the Roma migrating was an essential part of their lives and a way of surviving, which after they arrived in Europe and encountered other cultures did not change significantly and the migration process continued, although there were attempts to hinder or at least to limit them. Roma received a variety of names in Europe (which frequently caused misunderstandings) and also varying degrees of acceptance. The name Roma originates from the expression romani chib and means “man”.

There have been several pieces of research conducted into the Roma in the Republic of Croatia over the past twenty or so years. Some of the most significant are: research by the Institute for Social Research in Zagreb in 1982, whose results were published under the title “The Social Position of the Roma in the S.R. Croatia”; research by the Ivo Pilar Institute for Social Sciences in 1988, entitled “The Social and Developmental Position of the Roma in Croatia”; and the State Institute for the Family, Motherhood and Youth in 2002, under the title “The Structure of Roma Families and the Concept of Parenthood in them”.

According to the research work mentioned from 1988, the Roma were mentioned on the territory of Croatia for the first time in Dubrovnik in 1362 in a trading document. Ten or so years later (1373) the Roma are also mentioned in Zagreb, where they were tradesmen, tailors and butchers. In Dubrovnik the Roma (Jeđupi) lived in Gruž and already at the end of the 14th and in the 15th centuries they had formed national associations dealing with traditional Roma crafts and music. In the Middle Ages the Roma population was tied to the towns. In 1497 there was a priest called Dominik Ciganin working in Pula, and in 1500 the Roma were mentioned in the suburbs of Šibenik. There is very little information on the actual number and position of the Roma in Croatia during the 16th and 17th centuries. Gypsy “šipuši” musicians were mentioned in Croatia in 1671. In Međimurje Roma were mentioned in 1688 when in Legrad (which at that time came under the administration of Međimurje) the child of the “Gypsy” Duke Ivan was christened, and in the 18th century the feudal rulers of Međimurje permitted the immigration of the Roma Koritars.

Large Roma groups came to Croatia during the 19th century from Romania. They belonged to the Roma Koritar group and settled in the area of Međimurje and Podravina. They spoke ljimba d’bjas, a Romanian dialect (vlax dialect) and with the Kalderaši and Lovars who were already present formed the heart of today’s Roma population in Croatia

It is difficult to establish the exact number of Roma who are living in the Republic of Croatia today and their territorial distribution for several reasons, and therefore the results of the official census are only an indication of the real situation. The number of Roma in the Republic of Croatia, according to the censuses from 1948 to 2001 is shown in Table 1

TABLE 1: THE NUMBER OF ROMA ACCORDING TO THE CENSUSES FROM 1948 TO 2001

YEAR OF THE CENSUS

1948.

1953.

1961.

1971.

1981.

1991.

2001.

NUMBER OF THE ROMA

405

1 261

313

1. 257

3. 858

6. 695

9. 463

According to the last, 2001 census, 9,463 Roma were registered in Croatia. However, as has already been mentioned, it is estimated that between 30,000 and 40,000 Roma live in the Republic of Croatia. According to the results of the research "The Structure of the Romany Families and the Perception of the Content of Parenthood in Them" conducted by the State Institute for the Protection of Family, Motherhood and the Youth in 2002, 51% of the Roma in Croatia are indigenous, 17% have moved within Croatia, while others are the newcomers. The immigration by the Roma from other parts of the former Yugoslavia, especially from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Kosovo has been very intensive during the last ten years.

Table 2 gives a comparative presentation of the number of Roma by counties, covered by the 1991 and 2001 censuses mentioned. The data show the almost 50% increase in the total number of Roma in Croatia and a significant increase of the number of Roma in particular counties in 2001 compared with 1991, while the number of Roma has decreased in some counties (mostly in those affected by the war).


TABLE 2: THE NUMBER OF ROMA BY COUNTIES, ACCORDING TO THE 1991 AND 2001 CENSUSES
The Data from the National Bureau of Statistics

No.

C O U N T Y

1991.

2001.

1.

ZAGREB COUNTY

128

231

2.

KRAPINA-ZAGORJE COUNTY

2

4

3.

SISAK-MOSLAVINA COUNTY

315

708

4.

KARLOVAC COUNTY

16

7

5.

VARAŽDIN COUNTY

333

448

6.

KOPRIVNICA-KRIŽEVCI COUNTY

204

125

7.

BJELOVAR-BILOGORA COUNTY

144

140

8.

PRIMORJE AND GORSKI KOTAR COUNTY

504

589

9.

LIKA-SENJ COUNTY

49

10

10.

VIROVITICA-PODRAVINA COUNTY

86

4

11.

POŽEGA-SLAVONIA COUNTY

0

7

12.

SLAVNOSKI BROD-POSAVINA COUNTY

223

586

13.

ZADAR COUNTY

7

4

14.

OSJEK-BARANYA COUNTY

782

977

15.

ŠIBENIK-KNIN COUNTY

42

8

16.

VUKOVAR-SRIJEM COUNTY

265

167

17.

SPLIT-DALMATIA COUNTY

39

11

18.

DUBROVNIK AND NERETVA COUNTY

5

4

19.

ISTRIA COUNTY

637

600

20.

MEĐIMURJE COUNTY

1.920

2.887

21.

THE CITY OF ZAGREB

994

1.946

22.

TOTAL- CROATIA

6.695

9.463

Table 3 shows municipalities and towns by counties, that is city boroughs for the City of Zagreb, in which more than 100 Roma live according to the data from the 2001 census mentioned.

TABLE 3 : Municipalities, towns by counties and the city borough of the City of Zagreb in which more than one hundred Roma live.

No.

County

Municipality/Town

Number of Roma

1.

Zagreb County

Velika Gorica

130

2.

Sisak-Moslavina County

Novska

120

   

Sisak

436

3.

Varaždin County

Petrijanec

366

4.

Primorje-Gorski kotar County

Rijeka

489

5.

Slavnoski Brod-Posavina County

Slavonski Brod

582

6.

Osijek-Baranya County

Beli Manastir

153

   

Belišće

160

   

Darda

210

   

Osijek

124

7.

Vukovar-Srijem County

Vinkovci

114

8.

Istria County

Pula

301

9.

 

Vodnjan

195

10.

Međimurje County

Čakovec

1.105

   

Kotoriba

156

   

Mala Subotica

430

   

Nedelišće

541

   

Podturen

173

   

Selnica

162

   

Orehovica

237

11.

The City of Zagreb

Trnje

163

   

Pešćenica-Žitnjak

751

   

Gornja Dubrava

200

   

Donja Dubrava

126

   

Sesvete

343

12.

TOTAL

 

8.347

Having encountered numerous languages, customs and beliefs of other peoples during the migrations, the Roma have adopted the elements of the environments in which they resided for a longer period of time. As a rule, the majority population is not acquainted with or is not sufficiently acquainted with the traditions, language, art and other characteristics of the Roma.

The family is the fundamental element of the social structure of the Roma, with specific characteristics stemming from the tradition of the origins of the tribal authority and laws.

The 1982 research shows that the average Romany household has 5.6 members, while the 1998 research shows that relatively largest number of households has 5 or 6 members, with clear significant major differences between individual settlements. According to this characteristic, the Romany families differ significantly from an average household in Croatia, because an average Croatian household had 3.3 members in 1981, which decreased to 3.1 member in 1991, while the most recent data, from 1998 show that the average household in Croatia has 3 members.

The Romany households are mostly young. In the 1998 research already mentioned it was established that all the members of the household were under 39 years of age in 50% of the households surveyed, while households with elderly members are very rare.

Women are frequently marginalized, there is a high birth rate and traditional division of the roles in a family. The attitude towards the woman is not emancipated, women are exposed to discrimination, which is reflected in the upbringing of children and the functioning of the family. Children between 10 and 12 years of age, and even younger, participate in the work of their parents and family, which greatly hampers their regular schooling.

The results of the research mentioned by the National Institute for the Protection of Family, Motherhood and the Youth show that the Romany language is predominately spoken in Romany families (78.9%), or any of the dialects of the Romany language (romani chiba is spoken by 42.4% of the subjects, and ljimba d’ bjaš is spoken by 36.5%), Albanian is spoken by 11% of the subjects, and the Croatian language is spoken in only 6% of families, while 4% of the subjects expressly called the language of their every day communication Rumanian.

The Roma are members of different religious confessions. According to the results of the research mentioned, 45.5% of the subjects declared themselves to be Moslems, 31.1% Catholics, 16.9% Orthodox, and in the group "other" there were several Jehovah witnesses registered. As according to many sources religion is not especially important to the Roma, they frequently accept the dominant religion of the community in which they live, and add the elements of their traditional beliefs to it.

The living conditions of most members of the Romany population in the Republic of Croatia are difficult primarily because of the high unemployment rate, insufficient coverage by the system of education, inadequate housing conditions and (non)development of the areas inhabited by the Roma. The material conditions of the Roma can be most vividly illustrated by the data from the 2002 research mentioned, namely that in 89% of the households surveyed none of the members has a regular source of income.

III. THE HARMONISATION OF THE PROGRAM WITH INTERNATIONAL TREATIES IN THE FIELD OF HUMAN RIGHTS AND MINORITY RIGHTS

GOALS:

The realization of human and minority rights of the Roma

Monitoring the international system of protection for the Roma

Monitoring the policy towards the Roma in other countries

Participation in the development of an international system of protection for Roma

Harmonisation of legislation with the European Union's acquis and Council of Europe documents

III. HARMONISATION OF THE PROGRAM WITH INTERNATIONAL DOCUMENTS

Article 140 of the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia prescribes: "International agreements concluded and ratified in accordance with the Constitution and made public, and which are in force, shall be part of the internal legal order of the Republic of Croatia and shall be above law in terms of legal effects. Their provisions may be changed or repealed only under conditions and in the way specified in them or in accordance with the general rules of international law."

In addition to contractual obligations, Croatia has other obligations under international law stemming from its membership in international organizations.

The following international treaties and documents are especially significant for the realisation of the rights of the Roma:

A. THE DOCUMENTS OF THE UNITED NATIONS:

1. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948);

2. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966) and the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966);

3. International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966);

4. International Convention on Abolishment of All Forms of Discrimination (1965);

5. Convention on Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (1979) and the Optional Protocol to the Convention on Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (1999)

6. Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) and the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child
on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography (2000)

7. Declaration on the Rights of Members of National or Ethnic, Religious or Language Minorities (1992).

B. DOCUMENTS OF THE COUNCIL OF EUROPE:

The Council of Europe dedicates a large part of its activities to the protection of human rights, and especially to the protection of minorities. The binding legal force of these documents differs, depending whether these are contractual obligations expressly undertaken by Croatia or obligations on the basis of powers of the bodies of the Council of Europe.

The Council of Europe is an organisation whose activities include the protection of human rights and democracy, the preservation and development of a European cultural identity and the solution of social problems, such as the protection of minorities and the fight against xenophobia, environmental protection and the like.

A series of documents have been created within the scope of work mentioned, which, among other things, relate to the protection of the Roma, and which are binding for the Republic of Croatia, as a member of the Council of Europe. These are:

1. Convention on the Protection of Human Rights and
Fundamental Freedoms (the "European Convention on Human Rights"), (1951) and the Additional Protocols thereto;

2. Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (1995);

3. The European Charter on Regional or Minority Languages (1992);

4. Recommendations of the Committee of Ministers and of other bodies of the Council of Europe which relate to special issues connected with the Roma:
a) Recommendation No R (2000) 4 - of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the education of Roma/Gypsy children in Europe
b) Recommendation Rec (2001)17 on improving the economic and employment situation of Roma/Gypsies and Travellers in Europe (2001)

5. Recommendation of the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) on Combating Racism and Intolerance against Roma/Gypsies (1998)

6. Specific recommendations of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe and the European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance within the process of monitoring the implementation of the obligations relating to the Republic of Croatia:

a) Resolution ResCMN(2002)1 on the implementation of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities by Croatia (2002);
b) Second Report on Croatia CRI (2001) 34 by the European Commission Against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI).

In addition to the obligations mentioned, it is necessary to honour the obligations stemming from the documents of other international organisations and bodies.
MEASURES:
1. Continuous monitoring of the realisation of the human and minority rights of the Roma and active participation in the creation of an international system of protection of the Roma in multilateral organisations (United Nations, Council of Europe, OSCE, Stability Pact for South East Europe, etc.), and reporting on the implementation of the National Program for the Roma in the Republic of Croatia.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, The Ministry of
European Integration, the Human Rights Department, the Office for Human Rights, the Office for National Minorities
Time frame: after the adoption of the National Program
Means: there is no special expenditure

2. Monitoring of the policy towards the Roma in other, especially neighbouring states and collection of data with a view to improving international cooperation in the protection of the human and minority rights of the Roma.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of European Integration, the Office for National Minorities
Time frame: 2004, and continuing
Means: there is no special expenditure

3. The Coordination of the Preparation of National Reports Under International Conventions and Covenants in the Field of Human Rights, including Reporting on Human Rights of the Roma

Responsible body: the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of
European Integration
Time frame: 2004, and continuing
Means: there is no special expenditure

4. Monitoring of the process of harmonisation of legislation with the acquis of the European Union and Council of Europe instruments

Responsible body: the Government of the Republic of Croatia, the Ministry of European Integration, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Time frame: 2004, and continuing
Means: there is no special expenditure

IV. INCLUSION OF THE ROMA IN SOCIAL AND POLITICAL LIFE

GOALS:

Increasing awareness of the need to participate in the decision making process

Increased representation of women in representative bodies and inclusion in the decision making processes

Creation of formal preconditions for the inclusion of Romany representatives in the competent bodies of state administration, regional and local self-government

IV. INCLUSION OF THE ROMA IN SOCIAL AND POLITICAL LIFE

The Roma are very frequently perceived by the public and experts as a marginal social group. Their marginal feature has several dimensions (Šućur, 2000).

The laws and regulations of the Republic of Croatia in force, especially the Constitutional Act on the Rights of National Minorities of December 2002, enable the Roma to participate in the process of political decision-making, as members of one of the national minorities in Croatia.

The elections for national minorities councils held in May 2003 demonstrated the high awareness of the Roma of the need to participate in elections. For example, the turnout of the Roma voters in the municipalities was over 38%, which is a higher percentage than the turnout of many other national minorities. The Council members elected are mostly men. However, further work on the inclusion of the Roma in the decision-making process at higher levels of governance is still ahead of us, as well as activities aimed at the greater participation of women in these processes.

GOAL:

The goal is to achieve the inclusion of Roma in the decision-making process at all levels (local, regional, state) in accordance with the laws and regulations in force, and to make the Roma (especially the women) aware of the possibilities and ways of realizing their rights.

The expected effect is the establishment of Roma councils in counties, towns and municipalities, in accordance with the laws and regulations in force and the achievement of the representation of women in the councils.


MEASURES:

1. Encouragement of the establishment of minority Roma councils at local and regional levels and ensuring representation of the Roma in the representative bodies at these levels, as well as the realization of the possibility of electing a Roma Member of the Croatian Parliament.

In accordance with the provisions of the Constitutional Act on the Rights of National Minorities (Narodne novine /official Gazette/ no. 155/2002), the Act on the Amendments to the Act on the Election of Members of Representative Bodies of Local and Regional Self-government Units (Narodne novine, no. 45/2003) and the Act on the Elections of Member of the Croatian Parliament (Narodne novine, no. 69/2003) enabled the establishment of national minority councils and the representation of the Roma in representative bodies at local and regional levels, as well as the possibility of electing special representatives of national minorities to the Croatian Parliament. In this way Roma are enabled to participate in activities and decision-making on essential issues of their life.

Responsible body: The Government of the Republic of Croatia, counties, towns and municipalities, in which the Roma live
Time frame: the second half of 2003
Means: in accordance with laws and regulations

2. Proposal of amendments to the laws and regulations in force, with a view to enabling the participation of representatives of the Roma as external co-workers and advisors in the proceedings for the exercise of the rights of the Roma in the bodies of local and regional self-government.

This person will help the Roma to overcome the language barrier, to fill in forms etc. in the proceedings for the realisation of their rights (obtaining documents, the realisation of health and social care, rights from the field of employment).

Responsible body: the Ministry of Justice, Administration and
Local Self-government
Time frame: enactment of legislation by the end of 2004
Means: gross salary of an external co-worker and
advisor, as of 2005, from the town budget.


3. Enabling Roma representatives, especially women and young people, to take part in decision-making processes, exercise of their rights and greater inclusion in social life.

It is intended to achieve this by:
Organizing classes for Roma representatives for them to gain the necessary knowledge of management, founding and managing societies, the systematic linking of Roma associations and representatives of the area settled by Roma, and enabling women and young people to improve the position of women, to acquaint them with their rights according to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination of Women, the Convention on the Rights of the Child and other international instruments;
Organizing classes to train representatives of the majority population for work with the Roma;
Issuing appropriate informative and promotion materials and other appropriate forms of communication with the Roma and amongst the Roma, through which the course and manner of the implementation of measures from this program could be observed on a local and regional level, and the manner of systematic and effective inclusion of the Roma in the implementation;
Making it possible for Roma to participate in domestic and international seminars, and other meetings devoted to issues vital to the Roma population, encouraging cooperation of the Roma from Croatia with representatives of Roma from other countries and with international institutions and associations.

Responsible body: the Office for National Minorities
Time frame: in 2004 and continuing
Means: 200.000,00 kunas in 2004, from associations, donations

4. The Implementation of the Research "The Roma in Croatia: Assimilation or Integration"

The implementation of the research mentioned will start in 2004. Its purpose is to identify the standpoints of the Roma on their attitude towards the majority population, the attitude of the majority population towards the Roma, and to research the self-identification of the Roma, their attitude towards their own culture and its preservation, their world view, the position of women in the Roma community, etc.

Responsible body: the Office for National Minorities of the Government of the Republic of Croatia
Time frame: December 2004
Means: 100,000.00 kunas in 2004, from the State Budget, from associations, donations

V. THE PRESERVATION OF THE TRADITIOANL CULTURE OF THE ROMA

GOALS:

Development of two Romany centres

Encouragement and offering of financial assistance to Romany associations for programs in the field of cultural amateurism, cultural events, publishing and information

Organisation of courses in traditional Romany music and customs

Organisation of sporting activities

Promotion of Romany culture and creativity through the media

V. THE PRESERVATION OF THE TRADITIONAL CULTURE OF THE ROMA IN CROATIA

The Roma are not a homogenous group. The differences between them make it difficult for them to determine their own national identity and to preserve their traditional culture. Therefore special attention should be given to the original Roma culture, traditional customs, artistic creativity and language.

The different languages used by the Roma and the mainly oral literature which has developed indicate the need for a standardization of their language and script, their consistent use in books, the media, press, everyday conversation and especially in schools, and the need to develop the work of publishing. The cultivation of the traditional gift of the Roma for music and dance and the presentation of their creativity through the media may change the stereotyped Roma environment and contribute to their affirmation.

The Roma, just like other national minorities in the Republic of Croatia, are provided with the means for the cultivation of their own cultural creativity partially from the State Budget. Up to 2003 programs were financed through the Office for National Minorities of the Government of the Republic of Croatia, and the Council for National Minorities of the Government of the Republic of Croatia decides on the distribution of means intended for national minorities from 2003. There are about thirty Roma associations registered in the Republic of Croatia.

GOAL:

To create the conditions for the organization of the work of Roma cultural and artistic societies, including as large a number of Roma as possible in their work, the affirmation of the Roma culture and creativity, the creation of conditions for their preservation and development; inclusion of Roma in the activities of the media, the printing of a Roma dictionary and grammar, and the building of two multi-purpose Roma centres over the next five years.

MEASURES :

1. The building of two multi-purpose Roma centres

One Roma centre will be built in Zagreb and one in Čakovec. A variety of activities will be run in them by Roma associations and the work of cultural and artistic societies will be organized, along with social activities for the Roma and other people, educational activities aimed at the Roma, courses in adult literacy, health and other forms of education, the promotion and protection of human and minority rights and other activities.

Responsible body: The City of Zagreb and the Town of Čakovec, in
cooperation with the Office for National Minorities of the Government of the Republic of Croatia
Time frame: by the end of 2004
Means: the Office for National Minorities has allocated for
this purpose 1,000,000.00 kunas from the State Budget for 2002 to the City of Zagreb, and 100,000.00 kunas of the cultural centre in Čakovec.
2,000,000.00 kunas from the State Budget for 2004
The remainder of the means will be provided in cooperation with the City of Zagreb and Čakovec and from donations.

2. Providing premises for the activities of the Roma until Roma centres are built, and also in other communities where Roma live

The units of local and regional self-government in which Roma live and also other factors will be encouraged to provide conditions for the activities of Roma cultural-artistic societies and other forms of the activities of the Roma mentioned in Measure 1, in schools, cultural centres or other institutions.

Responsible body: the Office for National Minorities, counties, towns and municipalities in which Roma live, Romany associations
Time frame: 2004
Means: 200,000.00 kunas, the Office for National Minorities, donations

3. The financing of the programs of Romany associations from the field of amateur culture, cultural events, publishing and information.

The financing will continue of the programs of the Romany associations in the field of amateur culture, cultural events, publishing and information. This will include the promotion and work of amateur cultural societies in all areas of the Republic of Croatia where Roma live, to enable these societies to spread and to include as many young Roma in their work.

Responsible body: the Council for National Minorities, Romany
associations, counties, towns and municipalities in which Roma live, the Office for National Minorities
Time frame: each year, according to the Program of the Council for National Minorities adopted
Means: according to allocation by the Council for National Minorities, donations

4. Organisation of courses of traditional Romany music and customs: Financial assistance will be provided for courses in traditional Romany music, dance and Romany customs for young Roma, for the purpose of their preservation. The courses will be held by Romany folk societies.

Responsible body: the Office for National Minorities, counties, towns and municipalities in which Roma live, Romany associations, the Ministry of Culture, the Ministry of Education and Sport
Time frame: 2004 and continuing, according to the Program
adopted by the Council for National Minorities
Means: 100,000.00 kunas, the Office for National Minorities

Organisation of sport activities. Sport activities will be organised in cooperation with Romany associations and the already existing new Romany sport societies, aimed at the largest possible inclusion of young Roma. Also, the Roma who show interest and talent for particular sports will be included in the work of sport clubs.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Education and Sport, counties, towns
and municipalities in which Roma live, Romany associations, sport societies
Time frame: the Program begins in 2004
Means: 200,000.00 kunas from the state budget for 2004, means from associations and donations

6. Affirmation of the Roma culture, rights and customs through the media, and education and training.

Inclusion in teaching programs with additional content on the culture and way of life of the Roma and their rights as a national minority;
Programs for the creation of a positive picture of the Roma, through the media (posters, television films and articles on the radio and in the press);
Organisation of a Roma culture day (presentation of films, music, literature, works of art etc. with the aim of affirming their cultural creativity).

Responsible bodies: the Ministry of Education and Sport, the Ministry of Culture, the Office for National Minorities, cultural institutions and the media
Time frame: during 2003 and continuing
Means: 300,000.00 kunas in 2004.

7. Organisation of seminars for journalists on the affirmation of Roma through the media

At least one seminar will be organized a year for journalists during which they will be informed of:

- the rights of members of the Romany national minority
- the negative effects of stereotypes and prejudice and ways to affirm positive aspects, and equal and objective reporting on the Roma in the media.

Responsible body: Office for National Minorities, associations of journalists, Romany associations
Time frame: in 2004
Means: 400,000.00 kunas

8. Training and education of the Roma for their participation and employment in the media

The intention is to achieve this:
by providing scholarships to Romany students to study journalism and other subjects;
by organizing courses for the Roma who wish to be journalists

Responsible body: Office for National Minorities, in cooperation with the Ministry of Science and Technology, the Faculties, employment services, Romany associations, associations of journalists
Time frame: in 2004 and continuing
Means: 100,000.00 kunas in 2004

9. Organizing round tables on ways of promoting positive aspects and equalized reporting on the Roma, with the representatives of the media and the representatives of the Roma

Responsible body: Office for National Minorities, Council for
National Minorities, associations of journalists, the electronic media, Romany associations
Time frame: in 2004
Means: 100,000.00 for 2004

10. Conducting research by independent experts on the Roma in the media.

The Office for National Minorities will initiate a research to be conducted by independent experts or institutions in 2004 on the Roma in the media

Responsible body: Office for National Minorities, associations of journalists, electronic media, Romany associations
Time frame: in 2004
Means: 200,000.00 for 2004

11. Financing of special broadcasts on Croatian Radio and Television, and on other local media on the Roma in the Romany language

In cooperation with the Croatian Radio and Television and other local media provide for the broadcasting of 20 minute broadcasts for the Romany minority twice a month. The tendency is to design a broadcast which would be edited and prepared by the Roma themselves, after the necessary training.

Responsible body: the Office for National Minorities, HRT, other electronic media
Time frame: in 2004
Means: 1,000,000.00 for 2004

12. Financing of Romany papers and magazines

A Romany paper will be financed which will be open for all Romany associations, in which information which will be published of interest to the Romany population in Croatia, but also to others who desire to become better acquainted with the Roma and know more about them. A paper for young Roma will also be published. They will participate in its preparation.

Responsible body: Council for National Minorities, Romany associations
Time frame: in 2004 and continuing in the future according to the decision of the Council for National Minorities
Means: according to the decision of the Council for National Minorities

VI. STATUS RELATED ISSUES

GOALS:

Removal of legal, administrative and other obstacles in proceedings for the exercise of status related rights of the Roma

Employment of persons who speak the Romany language in services which resolve status related rights of the Roma

Prevention of legal, administrative and other obstacles in proceedings for the exercise of status related rights of the Rom;

Establishment of a free legal aid system for the Roma

Training of civil servants in a better understanding of the Roma

Encouragement of preventive activities by the police

Prevention of all forms of discrimination

VI. STATUS RELATED ISSUES

A. Citizenship

Some of the Roma, although they have been living in Croatia for a long time, do not have regulated Croatian citizenship.

Since status as a citizen is an important condition for the realization of many rights (political, civil, economic, social, cultural and others), it is vital to solve this problem urgently.

The problem of realization of Croatian citizenship has arisen for several reasons:
Members of the Romany national minority in most cases do not fulfil their legal obligation to register their residence in the Republic of Croatia, and they do not fulfil all the legal conditions to obtain Croatian citizenship. The documents used by members of the Romany national minority to prove their identity are often deficient. Their request therefore includes formal insufficiencies, which prevents action being taken on it. Since the Roma mainly do not register the birth of a child to the responsible body, the child does not possess any birth certificate. Moreover the procedure for obtaining Croatian citizenship for minors in some cases is initiated by persons who are not authorized to do so, since they appear as legal representatives of children born out of wedlock, although no recognition proceedings have taken place previously, or there has been no determination of paternity. Furthermore, some of the members of the Roma national minority have never submitted requests for issuance of identity documents or they own identity documents from the former Yugoslavia, from which their present citizenship is not clear, and it is not possible to determine this with any certainty on the basis of the information available.

This particularly relates to people who are resident abroad and who are citizens of one of the republics of the former Yugoslavia but who were resident in the Republic of Croatia for a certain period of time.

GOAL:

The goal is to motivate the Roma to register changes in their temporary and permanent residences, changes of their home address in the place of temporary or permanent residence, for the purpose of facilitating the fulfilment of legal preconditions for the acquisition of Croatian citizenship.

The intention of these measures is also to remove the administrative obstacles which could lead to some forms of discrimination against the Roma in proceedings for the acquisition of Croatian citizenship, and to facilitate thereby the exercise of status related issues to the Romany population.

MEASURES:

1. The foundation of mobile teams made up of representatives of the competent ministries, the offices of state administration, the centres for social welfare, Romany NGOs and representatives of the Roma, who will ascertain the situation in the areas settled by the Roma, for each case individually, and instruct the inhabitants of that area in ways of solving the issue of status, especially the registration of residency, and obtaining Croatian citizenship.

The mobile teams will be trained to implement these measures.

The Roma who live in that area will be informed through the media, especially on a local level (local radio and television) and Romany associations, of the date of the visit and work of the mobile teams in the area, as well as of other details relating to the implementation of these measures.
Where necessary the team will include someone who knows the Romany language who will help the Roma to do what is necessary in the procedure for regulating their status.

Responsible body: the Ministry of the Interior in cooperation with the
Ministry of justice, Administration and Local Self-government, non-governmental organizations, representatives of Roma and bodies of local self-government
Time frame: Foundation of mobile teams - May 2004
Training of teams - June 2004
Implementation of the measure – by the end of 2004
Means: 100,000.00 kunas in 2004

2. When prescribing the procedure for obtaining Croatian citizenship the difficulties pointed out by Roma in regulating their status in the Republic of Croatia will be born in mind and there will be consultation with the Roma associations on the customary laws of the Roma.

Responsible body: the Ministry of the Interior in cooperation with the Ministry of Justice, Administration and Local Self-government
Time frame: in 2004
Means: not necessary

3. The officials who work on the regulation of the status of Roma will be informed of the customs and behaviour of the Roma to avoid any form of discrimination against them.

Responsible body: the Ministry of the Interior in cooperation with the Ministry of Justice, Administration and Local Self-government
Time frame: in 2003
Means: not necessary

4. Brochures in the Romany language will be prepared and printed with information on the rights of foreigners, how to obtain Croatian citizenship, on registration or deregistration of residence, personal identity cards, exercising rights to health care, the conditions for regulating personal status, and the obligation to do this, the exercise of rights to social welfare and other information of importance to the Roma.

Responsible body: office for National Minorities in cooperation with the Ministries competent for individual issues and with the representatives of Romany associations
Time frame: in 2004
Means: 100,000.00 kunas in 2004

5. Employment of persons who speak the Romany language in services where requests by the Roma are dealt with for the regulation of status in administrative proceedings.

In this way, Roma who do not know sufficient Croatian language will more easily overcome the linguistic and administrative hurdles and it will be possible for them to submit their request correctly.

Responsible body: The Ministry of the Interior
Time frame: 2004, and continuing
Means: 80,000.00 kunas in 2004

B. PREVENTION OF VIOLENT BEHAVIOUR TOWARDS ROMA BY POLICE ACTION

Recently in the media there have been frequent reports of individual attacks on Roma people, which are subsequently mentioned in the reports by international organisations for the protection of human rights. Since the investigations by the competent bodies most often show that these are not racist attacks, and often not even attacks by the majority population on the Roma, timely and objective information, systematic investigation and monitoring of these cases would avoid the creation of the impression of the endangerment of individual groups of citizens, and the prevention of all forms of violent behaviour would lead to a quiet and secure life for Roma and other citizens of the Republic of Croatia.

There has been no systematic racially motivated violence against the Roma recorded in Croatia, rather it is mainly a case of verbal violent behaviour by young people, frequently when under the influence of alcohol. Violent behaviour has also been noticed amongst the Roma themselves.

However, for a systematic fight against any form of violence against a population group, and thus against the Roma, systematic work is needed to discover and suppress this form of crime, which amongst other things includes monitoring the incidence of this kind of event, and gathering information on the perpetrators, victims and areas where these incidents occur.

Police officers on patrol have many opportunities to carry out proactive and preventive measures to prevent violence on a local level. They may also offer support and aid to the victims of racially motivated violence, supervise the behaviour of the perpetrators, potential perpetrators and their groups, and take part in any other form of preventive work.

The experience of victimisation by racially motivated violence may affect the behaviour of the Roma, their opinions, their feelings and their involvement in society. It is not unusual for members of a minority group, from fear of violence against their own lives and bodies, and dissatisfied with the protection offered by society, to organize themselves, which often means the beginning of more violence.

GOAL:

To strengthen preventive action, to prevent violent behaviour and racially motivated violence against Roma, or to suppress it at its very source. Measures are implemented in collaboration with the Roma community. The expected result is a reduction in violent behaviour and racially motivated violence.

MEASURES:

1. Achieving greater effectiveness in the police in the discovery and prevention of violence against Roma and violence in Romany settlements.

Incidents which have already occurred will be analysed and researched, with consideration of each case individually, and groups of similar cases as a phenomenon, in order to establish forms of violence and strategies to prevent them. Collaboration between the police and the Roma community will be strengthened on a local level; the relationship between the police and the Roma will be recorded, and the needs, interests and proposals of the Roma will be taken into consideration in the context of these procedures. The effect of the measures used will be evaluated and the existing or new methods will be applied accordingly to prevent racially motivated violence.

Responsible body: the Ministry of the Interior in cooperation with members of Romany community
Time frame: in 2003 and continuing
Means: to be determined

2. Encouragement of the Roma to report racial and other forms of violence against them, and registering and statistically monitoring the number of these incidents.

Through the media and in other ways, to encourage citizens, especially Roma, as victims or witnesses of racially motivated violence against Roma, to report these cases to the police, with the aim of improving the quality of police reaction to citizens’ reports of racial incidents. The police will monitor statistically the nature and range of violence against Roma and members of the Roma community and submit an annual report on this to the office for National Minorities.

Responsible body: the Ministry of the Interior and the Office for National
Minorities in cooperation with the Romany community
Time frame: continuing
Means: to be determined

3. Increase the number of police officers involved in the “community policing” campaign of the Ministry of the Interior of the Republic of Croatia in those local areas where there is a higher risk of racial or other forms of crime, and additional police training for those involved in the project. Pay special attention to training police officers about the needs of minority groups, and especially the Roma community, and their rights and needs. As part of these measures, a joint meeting will be held between representatives of the police in the areas settled by the Roma with the aim of solving problems which arise from police action.

Responsible body: the Ministry of the Interior, Romany associations
Time frame for everything: continuing
Means: to be determined

VII. LEGAL AID AND THE FIGHT AGAINST DISCRIMINATION

GOALS:

Monitoring the occurrence of discrimination and the proposal of measures to prevent it

offering legal aid to Roma in the exercise of their rights

LEGAL AID AND THE SUPPRESSION OF DISCRIMINATION

The Republic of Croatia has sanctioned as a criminal act all forms of discrimination in its Penal Code. This means that any differences made between individuals or groups according to race, skin colour, religion or ethnic group is a crime, and on this basis also the giving of any advantage or denying rights to a group. This is a crime which is prosecuted ex officio and the public prosecutor’s office is authorized to institute proceedings. In the case of this criminal act it is necessary to prove the intention of discrimination. Therefore cases of physical assault on Roma (and other citizens) are very difficult to punish on this basis. In the case of the criminal act of physical assault, where there is no direct connection between the perpetrator and the victim, it is very difficult, and sometimes impossible, to determine the perpetrator of the act and there is therefore no punishment.

Continuous, systematic monitoring creates the possibility of recognizing discriminatory behaviour on time, and taking measures to prevent occurrences of discrimination and further upgrading of legislation directed at setting up effective protection from discrimination for citizens.

One of the more serious problems in the exercise of a variety of rights is citizens’ lack of education, which is particularly in evidence in the Roma population. The problem is further complicated due to the lack of a legal aid service which would make it easier to realize rights before the state and judicial bodies, as well as the bodies of units of local and regional self-government, or legal persons vested with public powers. This problem particularly affects the Romany population both because of their low level of education and because of cultural differences. Therefore it is necessary to take long-term measures to deal with this issue in a permanent manner, and certain ad hoc measures which will set up a temporary form of help in exercising individual rights.

Furthermore, Roma who need to exercise certain rights are exposed to illegal law practitioners in their own environment whom they do not report due to problems in communicating with the bodies of state administration.

GOAL:

To provide over a period of three years the offer of free legal aid for Roma within the framework of a comprehensive legal aid service independent of the judicial authorities and of the bodies of state administration or bodies of local or regional self-government.

MEASURES:

1. Monitoring the occurrence of discrimination of Roma and taking measures to remove it and to sanction the perpetrators. The application of legal solutions aimed at suppressing discrimination and where necessary proposing appropriate amendments to the law with the aim of greater effectiveness.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Justice, Administration and Local
Self-government, the Ministry of the Interior, the Office for Human Rights, non-governmental organisations,
Time frame: 2004 and 2005
Means: not necessary

2. The organization of legal aid for the Roma in proceedings for the realization of rights guaranteed by the Constitution and the law, through an attorney in the counties where the Roma live. This must be organized until the establishment of a legal aid service by law.

The implementation of these measures will be organized and monitored by the Ministry of Justice, Administration and Local Self-government and the means for their implementation will be planned by the Office for National Minorities.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Justice Administration and Local Self-government, Croatian Bar Association, state administration offices, the Office for National Minorities
Time frame: June 2004
Means: 200,000.00 kunas in 2004

3. Legal organization of the work and financing of the legal aid system.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Justice, Administration and Local Self-
government
Time frame: three years
Means: not necessary

4. Suppression of any discrimination by the police against the Roma.

Any discrimination within the police service against members of national minorities, and especially the Roma (regardless whether it is seen on an individual, cultural or institutional level) must be recognized and suppressed by the disciplinary bodies of the Ministry of the Interior.

Responsible body: the Ministry of the Interior
Time frame: continuing
Means: not necessary

VIII. UPBRINGING AND EDUCATION

GOALS:

The inclusion of Roma children in preschool education programs, or in programs of preparation for school

The inclusion of school age children in regular education and incentives to complete education to the limits of their abilities

The inclusion of young people and adults in continuation of their education in accord with the principles of whole life learning

The inclusion of adult Roma in the project “Croatian literacy: the path to our desired future"

Scholarships for high school and university students

The printing of a Romany dictionary and other publications in the Romany language.

Education of teachers and teachers’ assistants


VIII. UPBRINGING AND EDUCATION

The right to education and upbringing in the language and script of the national minorities is exercised by the Roma and members of the national minorities in the Republic of Croatia in accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia, the Constitutional Act on the Rights of National Minorities and the Act on Education and Training in the Language and Script of National Minorities.

According to these regulations and the educational programs adopted on the basis of them, the Roma, just like members of other national minority groups, can be educated and trained in their mother tongue from pre-school age, if they so wish. Today members of the Roma national minority are not included systematically in any educational model in their own language, since they have as yet not asked for this, but they are included in the regular educational and training system of the Republic of Croatia in the Croatian language.

Roma children must be equally included in all educational and training establishments, in order to attain equal opportunities for quality education to the limits of their own abilities, as all other children.

However, because of an insufficient knowledge of the Croatian language, the socially and materially deprived situation from which they originate and many other reasons, Roma children who fulfil the prescribed conditions (age, physical and emotional capacity etc.) are not all included in the educational system. The Ministry of Education and Sport does not have available the exact number of Roma who should be included in each level of the educational system. In the 2002-03 school year, about 1,900 Roma children and pupils were included in the educational system, and it is thought that about a third of Roma children have never been included in any form of education or training.

Believing that the education and training of Roma is one of the most important factors for change and improvement of their position in society, the competent state bodies over the last few years, the local community, Roma and other associations have been endeavouring to cover and include greater numbers of Roma children in pre-school educational programs. However, due to the many years of insufficient care from society and the marginalized position of the Roma in many segments of life, this is just the beginning of a long lasting process which demands the creation and application of measures which will provide Roma children with equal conditions in all educational establishments and good quality schooling.

GOAL:

The basic aim of education and training of Roma children in Croatia is to provide equal chances, non-discrimination, desegregation, the prevention of social marginalisation, and the encouragement of social integration of the Roma with respect for the rights of minorities and the right to equality etc.

The implementation of education and training at a national level, gradual inclusion of all Roma children of pre-school age in programs to prepare them for elementary school, inclusion of all Roma children in elementary education and the encouragement of high school and higher education, the inclusion of adult Roma in literacy programs and professional training.

MEASURES:

Preschool Education

To prepare Roma children for school it is important that as many preschool children as possible are included in the preschool program. Therefore the Ministry of Education and Sport has endorsed several forms of preschool programs in which Roma children are included. Apart from inclusion in regular kindergartens (day care) with other children, the following have also been endorsed: a program identical to regular kindergarten for Roma children; short programs lasting three hours a day; programs which include Roma children a year before they start school etc. These programs are run by kindergartens, Roma kindergartens, elementary schools, Romany and other associations.

1. Encouraging the inclusion of as many Romany children as possible in regular programs in kindergartens with other children. Romany children up to five years of age who have not been included in kindergarten should be included in preschool programs, with the aim of developing all their potential and abilities appropriate to their age, and in this way increase their possibility for success and advancement in the regular educational system.

The heart of this program is the learning of the Croatian language, development of hygiene and study habits, sociability, sensitivity, self-control, the adoption of acceptable forms of behaviour, and other activities, which encourage the all-round development of the emotional and physical character of every child.

The preschool program would be organized during the academic year, and last three hours a day.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Education and Sport, the local and regional self-government units, Romany and other associations
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: 1,600,000.00 kunas in 2004


2. Testing the linguistic, psychological and physical status of Roma children before inclusion in the preschool program

To this end a mobile team of experts should be founded made up of a pedagogue, a psychologist, a special education expert, a social worker and a doctor, who will carry out this testing, suggest individual programs of exercises and the organisation of groups of children depending on the results attained. With Roma children there will be more intensive work on the intellectual, emotional, oral, psycho-motor developmental level, and specific compensatory intervention and other programs of preschool education will be intensified. One preschool teacher with a Roma assistant will work with small groups.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Education and Sport, the local and regional self-government units, Romany and other associations
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: 100,000.00 kunas for 2004

3. Provision of one free meal to children included in the preschool program and transport where necessary

Responsible body: the Ministry of Education and Sport, the local and regional self-government units, Romany and other associations
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: 500,000.00 kunas in 2004

4. Organization of additional education of teachers for work with children from socially or economically deprived environments, and a Romany assistant teacher with high school education to aid the teacher in understanding the Romany language.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Education and Sport, the local and regional self-government units, Romany and other associations
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: 300,000.00 kunas in 2004

5. Monthly thematic lectures for parents in Roma settlements, with the emphasis on psychosocial aid.

These lectures will be held once a month by a mobile team of experts including a pedagogue, psychologist, a special education expert, a social worker and a doctor, and the children’s teacher and assistant will organise weekly meetings with the parents of preschool children relating to the subject of parenthood and raising children.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Education and Sport, the local and regional self-government units, Romany and other associations
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: 100,000.00 kunas annually

Evaluation of the work and implementation of the preschool program and depending on the results achieved proposal and implementation of appropriate measures.

Responsible body: The Ministry of Education and Sport
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: not necessary

B. Elementary Education

Elementary school is compulsory for all children who by 31 March of the current year have attained the age of six years. By the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia and by law, the right of every child between the ages of 7 and 15 years to elementary and compulsory education is guaranteed.

There were about 1500 Roma pupils included in elementary school education in the 2002-03 school year.

Since the major problem in including Roma children in elementary school is their lack of knowledge of the Croatian language, and the Roma in Croatia do not speak one unified Roma language, which teachers could learn, to help class teachers, teachers’ assistants are being introduced to schools, who speak the Roma language spoken by the Roma children in that school. The teachers’ assistants work in groups of pupils of the Roma national minority, from the first to the fourth year of elementary school, to offer assistance to the pupils in the process of socialisation and mastering the curriculum.

Teachers’ assistants as a rule live in the settlement or know the settlement well from which the pupils come, have at least a high school education and with a good knowledge of the Croatian language, also know the Romany language of the area the pupils are from.

Despite the enormous amount of effort that has in the past few years gone into including Roma children in regular education, the problems are still immense. The Roma insist on including the children in classes together with other children, which the parents of those children sometimes find hard to accept, primarily because of the lack of previous knowledge in the Roma children.

1. The organisation of classes and/or groups appropriate to the Roma children’s previous knowledge

For Roma children who were not included in preschool programs and/or do not know sufficient Croatian, separate classes will be organised or separate groups in the first grade of elementary school. The Ministry of Education and Sport and the elementary school in question will draw up a curriculum and program and organise its implementation adjusted to the specific circumstances (the number of Roma children, their previous knowledge, the space available, staffing and other possibilities offered by the school etc.).

For Roma children who were included in preschool programs and/or speak the Croatian language well, mixed classes are organised.

Responsible body: The Ministry of Education and Sport, the school which the child is attending
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: not necessary

2. Organisation of all day school or other forms of additional classes for Roma children who need it. The aim of all day school and additional classes is the provision of the space and other conditions for writing homework and study by Roma children who do not have suitable conditions in their own home and the offer of help to enable them to get on better, to learn the Croatian language and to learn the lesson material.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Education and Sport, the school which the child is attending
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: 50,000.00 kunas in 2004

3. Encourage the inclusion of Roma children in free extra-curricular activities (such as sports, amateur school and out of school clubs etc.) and encourage, monitor and develop gifted children where this is felt to be useful. Train Roma pupils in extra-curricular programs to use new information technology.

Responsible body: the school which the child is attending, local and regional self-government units, non-governmental organisations
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: 30,000.00 kunas in 2004

4. Provide food in schools during teaching hours and the all day school for Roma children from deprived homes

Responsible body: The school which the child is attending, local and regional self-government units,
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: 150,000.00 kunas in 2004

5. Organise free time activities in elementary schools for Roma children who wish to cultivate their Roma culture, customs and traditions

Responsible body: the school which the child is attending in cooperation with non-governmental organisations and sport clubs, local and regional self-government units
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: 50,000.00 kunas in 2004

6. Motivate and return to elementary education Roma children who have left elementary school for some reason, and include Roma who have reached 15 years of age and who have not finished elementary school or who are illiterate, in the Republic of Croatia Government program “For Croatia literacy: the path to a better future,” aimed at teaching adults to read and learn a trade.

Responsible body: The Ministry of Education and Sport, local and regional self-government units
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: 600.000,00 kunas in 2004

7. Print a Roma-Croatian picture dictionary for children. Produce or translate picture books in the Roma language. Produce textbooks and dictionaries, didactic tools and working materials to make it easier to learn the Croatian standard language and linguistic material

Responsible body: the Ministry of Education and Sport, local and regional self-government units, the institution which offers pre-school programs, Romany and non-Romany associations
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: 300.000,00 kunas


C. High School Education

The number of Roma who go to high school is unsatisfactory. In the 2002-03 school year only 200 pupils were attending high school.

With the aim of increasing the number of Roma pupils in high schools, the Ministry of Education and Sport is running a scholarship program. The accommodation of pupils is financed in pupils’ residences (dorms) and individual scholarships are awarded. In the 2002-3 school year 20 pupils were receiving scholarships in the pupils’ residence in Čakovec and nine pupils in other high schools in Zagreb, Bjelovar and Čakovec.

1. Encourage the enrolment of Roma pupils in high schools by organising preparation for enrolment and help in studying and learning course content.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Education and Sport, schools, Romany and other associations
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: 50.000,00 kunas in 2004

2. Scholarships for Roma pupils who need them

Responsible body: the Ministry of Education and Sport
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: 300.000,00 kunas in 2004

3. Financing of accommodation in pupils’ residences for Roma pupils who need it

Responsible body: the Ministry of Education and Sport, schools, Romany and other associations
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: 300.000,00 kunas in 2004

D. Higher Education

Although there is no information on the number of Roma students, in view of the very small number who finish high school, it may be supposed that the number of Roma students is insignificant.

1. Encourage Roma pupils to gain higher or university education and organise and finance preparations for taking the entrance examinations.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Science and Technology, Universities, Polytechnics and Colleges,
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: 100.000,00 kunas in 2004

2. Recognition of additional points for Roma students for the social and economic conditions in which they live, for accommodation in students’ residences.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Science and Technology, Universities, Polytechnics and Colleges, student centres
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: not necessary

3. Scholarships for Roma students who need them

Responsible body: the Ministry of Science and Technology, Universities, Polytechnics and Colleges, non-governmental organisations
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: 200.000,00 kunas annually

4. Introduction of the Roma language and culture as an elective course at the teachers’ academy and other institutions of higher education.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Science and Technology, Universities, Polytechnics and Colleges,
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: to be determined

D. Training And Education In Human Rights

On all levels of training and education it is necessary to teach Roma and others about human rights. The programs need to be suitable for the age of the pupils and include teaching on human rights, the rights of national minorities, tolerance etc.

Education and training in human rights is an essential part of the local, national and global strategy seeking to provide effective development of individuals, nations as well as the world as a whole. Human rights education is an effective means of solving serious crises in the contemporary world.

The program should cover both the Roma and the majority population.

Organisation of human rights education in all educational institutions

Responsible body: the Ministry of Education and Sport, the Council for Education on Human Rights of the Government of the Republic of Croatia, the Office for Human Rights, the Ministry of Science and Technology, Universities, Polytechnics and Colleges, non-governmental organisations, institutions
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: not necessary

IX. HEALTH CARE

GOALS:

Health education for the Roma

Carry out health surveys amongst the Roma

To include a larger number of Roma children in vaccination programs

Improve conditions for the work of health visitors amongst the Roma population

Fight against alcoholism, smoking and other addictions

Monitor the realisation of the right to health care of all Roma, especially children and women

IX. HEALTH CARE

Roma with the status of citizens of the Republic of Croatia exercise their right to health care in accordance with the provisions of the Health Protection Act and the Health Insurance Act, in the same manner and under the same conditions as all other citizens of the Republic of Croatia. For those Roma whose citizenship has not been regulated the conditions and manner of realisation of health care are established in the Health Care of Foreigners in the Republic of Croatia Act. Due to the high level of unemployment, a very small number of Roma who are capable of working have health insurance. Through the counties, a certain number of Roma without health insurance exercise their right to health care from budget funds, in accordance with the provisions of the Health Protection Act on the basis of the Regulations on measures and procedures to determine the incapacity for independent life and work and the lack of means for maintenance for persons resident in the Republic of Croatia for whom health care is not provided for on any other basis.

It was not possible to determine precise data on the health or health care of Roma since health and other details related to the health system, as any other system, are not kept according to the nationality of the population. So too neither the Croatian Institute for Public Health nor the Croatian Institute for Health Insurance collect or process health data statistics according to nationality or ethnic group, that is they do not have data on the health care of the Roma.

The work of public health, which covers epidemiology, microbiology, immunisation, social medicine and health statistics, health education with the promotion of health and the prevention of disease, school medicine, the prevention of addiction, sanitation, health ecology and toxicology is carried out in the Republic of Croatia by the Croatian Institute for Public Health and the county institutes for public health. The Croatian Institute for Public Health coordinates, gives professional guidance and supervises the work of the county institutes for public health.

With respect for the specific cultural, linguistic and social characteristics of the Roma national minority, which affect their use of the health services, there is a continual active approach to the prevention of disease in the Roma population according to health priorities and opportunities. The counties as the units of local or regional self-government through their public health institutes, with the collaboration of the sanitary inspectorate and the units of local self-government, are undertaking a large number of measures to improve the quality of life and health care of the Roma population, and especially children. The county institutes for public health are health establishments, which in the area of the county carry out public health work, and this covers the epidemiology of quarantine and other infectious diseases, the epidemiology of widespread non-infectious diseases, the provision of clean drinking water, food and air, immunization, sanitation, health statistics and health education. Since many Roma settlements are not urbanised, that is they do not have municipal infrastructure (water supplies, removal of waste, hygienic living conditions, pest control etc.), obligatory preventive disinfections, insect and pest control, removal of waste, supervision of the water supply and other living conditions, epidemiological supervision and other activities are frequently carried out.

Immunization is a legal requirement for all Croatian citizens and persons who do not have Croatian citizenship, but are present in the territory of the Republic of Croatia, regardless if they have health insurance or not. The right and obligation to be immunized is realized most easily through the elected physician (specialist paediatrician, specialist general practitioner), which means that the insured person receives the vaccine required in the optimal time intervals and with the least burden on the health care system. However in many counties with a large number of Roma, the problem has been noted of the lack of response by parents to the obligatory vaccination of children in the Roma communities. The law prescribes penalties for parents, guardians or care-takers who do not take their children to be vaccinated as prescribed. of course, with respect for the specific nature of the Roma community, it is understandable that no positive effect will be achieved through merely imposing the penalties foreseen by the law. For this reason the institutes for public health periodically check the immunization status of Roma children and where necessary undertake additional immunization. An example of a campaign of this sort was the request by the Croatian institute for public health in the spring of 2001 for all epidemiologists to check the immunization status of Roma children in their areas, with special emphasis on immunization against polio, and for them to vaccinate all children who had not yet received the appropriate vaccine. Health supervision of school children is carried out by specialists in school medicine from the county institutes for public health, and most school children are vaccinated, but the problem of children who leave elementary school education early should not be overlooked.

Health care by health visitors is offered continually within the health centres, which is very important and irreplaceable work in the area of the Roma settlements. The health visitor service is, on the basis of a contract with the Croatian institute for health insurance, responsible for taking care of the entire population in terms of health visitors, in the area covered by the contract, regardless of the status of the insured persons. Unfortunately despite the implementation of hygiene and sanitation measures in Roma settlements and schools, and the work of health education, positive results are often lacking due to the impossibility of implementing hygiene measures in the un-urbanised Roma settlements.

With respect for the fact that a large number of Roma, due to their specific characteristics we have mentioned, do not make use of their guaranteed right to health care through the existing health system, the lasting solution to the difficulties faced by the Roma in realising their rights in the health care system is their inclusion in the existing health care system.

GOAL:

The inclusion of the Roma population in the health system, and especially the implementation of the mandatory immunization of Roma children. The expected results over the first five years: an increase in the number of immunized Roma children, with the aim of attaining total coverage of children whom it is obligatory to immunize.

MEASURES:

1. Health education and teaching of the Roma, especially women, on the subjects: personal and group hygiene (personal hygiene habits, hygiene of individual body parts, including sex organs, oral and dental hygiene, food hygiene, including correct choice, preparation and storage of food, hygiene of clothes and shoes, correct child care and procedure with sick children), family planning, and environmental hygiene (hygiene of living accommodation, hygiene of the environment, drinking water, waste water, disposal of waste).

The targeted group for health education and training are selected assistants who as representatives are chosen by Roma in the particular county, or the Roma population, especially in settlements. The educators may be health visitors, general practitioners, paediatricians, epidemiologists, school doctors and other health workers.

The education will be carried out in that two day seminars will be run by the educators in the Croatian Institute for Public Health (in groups of five persons, from each of five selected counties), and in the county institutes for public health three day seminars will be organised (with about ten persons per seminar) for selected Roma assistants from Roma settlements proposed by the Roma themselves or their associations. The final goal of these measures is for educated Roma assistants to take back their knowledge and skills to the Roma population in the settlements, with the supervision of the health visitors and doctors in the field.

Responsible bodies: counties (county administrative departments) in cooperation with the Ministry of Health, county institutes for public health in cooperation with the Croatian Institute for Public Health and community health centres
Time frame: in 2004
Means: 190.000,00 kunas in 2004

2. Implementation of the health survey. In addition, in relation to the previous measure, training would be undertaken of Roma assistants to carry out a survey relating to health, and the data would be processed on the level of the county institutes for public health. The results of the survey would serve as a basis for proposals of new measures

Responsible body: counties (county administrative departments) in cooperation with the Ministry of Health, county institutes for public health in cooperation with the Croatian Institute for Public Health and community health centres, Romany assistants
Time frame: in 2004: training of Romany assistance in conducting surveys connected with health
in 2005: processing of data obtained by the survey and proposing measures
Means: 235,000.00 kunas in 2004

3. Improvement of the coverage by immunization. The county institutes for public health will set up contacts with representatives of the locations settled by Roma and NGOs to check the immunization status of Roma children in the area of the county and carry out immunization of the inadequately immunized Roma children.

The Croatian Institute for Public Health will, within its authority, offer help and professional coordination with the county institutes for public health. The best method of improving the coverage by immunization of Roma children is for them to attend school regularly. In some areas the best coverage will be improved by vaccination in the Roma settlements, and in other places by the children coming to the hygiene and epidemiological clinic or the paediatrician. Roma associations must make use of their influence on those in the population who resist immunization, for cultural reasons or lack of information, and in this way make cooperation easier between the parents and the epidemiological service.

Responsible body: counties (county administrative departments) in cooperation with the Ministry of Health, county institutes for public health in cooperation with the Croatian Institute for Public Health and community health centres, representatives of the locations inhabited by Roma, non-governmental organisations
Time frame: to organize a meeting within three months of the adoption of the Program, at which the most appropriate way of checking the immunization status in the counties will be agreed at the county level. Over the following six months to carry out thorough assessment of immunization status (including checks with paediatricians and school doctors) and assess and provide the necessary additional funding to implement the first campaign of immunization. According to the situation found in the field, the epidemiological service of the county institute for public health in coordination with the epidemiological service of the Croatian Institute for Public Health, shall assess how often it is necessary to repeat the campaign.

Means: additional means are not required.

4. Improvement of the conditions of work of health visitors to the Roma population. Health visitor teams will be formed on a county level, who will be obliged to visit the locations settled by Roma once a month. The health visitor team would consist of (within the health centres): a doctor, a health visitor and a social worker.

The main task of care by health visitors is the improvement of health and the prevention of disease. Health visitors by visiting Roma settlements may help to educate the entire population. The education of the Roma population primarily relates to the improvement of hygiene habits, nutrition and protection from infectious diseases. However without outside help, the health visitor alone has little chance of having a significant effect on the way of life and habits of the Roma population. Therefore it is proposed that a health visitor team be formed at a county level, composed as mentioned above, which would have the obligation of visiting the locations settled by the Roma. In this way problems, which as well as health care also demand the intervention of the social services, could be solved at the same time and make it possible to attain better results.

Responsible bodies: counties (county administrative departments) in cooperation with the Ministry of Health, community health centres and social welfare centres
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: 200,000.00 kunas in 2004

5. The fight against alcoholism, tobacco smoking and other addictions

As part of a national campaign in the fight against alcoholism, tobacco smoking and the abuse of narcotic drugs, special attention will be paid to the Roma population, since alcoholism, tobacco smoking and drug abuse are widespread amongst the Roma, especially the young.

Responsible bodies: Croatian Institute for Public Health, in cooperation with county institutes for public health and community health centres, office for Fight against Abuse of Narcotic Drugs of the Government of the Republic of Croatia
Time frame: in 2004 and continuing
Means: according to the estimate by the governmental Office for Fight against Abuse of Narcotic Drugs and Croatian Institute for Public Health

6. Monitoring of the realisation of rights to health care for children and women

Various factors at a local level – representatives of Roma and other associations, representatives of Roma settlements, representatives of schools, centres for social welfare, the police and others, who have information on the violation of the right to health care for Roma women and children, are obliged to inform the head of the health institution of this in writing, and he/she will act on the information in accordance with the law.

Responsible body: local administration and self-government
Time frame: 2004 and continuing
Means: additional means are not necessary

X. EMPLOYMENT

GOALS

Achieve higher levels of employment of the Roma

Employ more Roma in public works programmes

Include the Roma in programmes for obtaining qualifications for a job

Employ counsellors for mediation in the employment of the Roma

Co-finance the employment of the Roma

X. EMPLOYMENT

Problems related to employment of the Roma are manifold and must, thus, be addressed on a multidisciplinary basis. The basic obstacles to employment of the Roma on the open labour market are as follows:

the Roma have low educational levels and refuse to take part in programmes for obtaining additional qualifications and in additional training;
employers have prejudices and the Roma have wrong perception that they belong to a discriminated minority and that, whatever they do, they will not be able to find a job;
Roma population is marginalized and lives in poverty.

For the last several years a considerable number of unemployed people has been recorded in Croatia. As a result of insufficient creation of new jobs, almost all categories of the population face difficulties in finding employment, and especially those with lower employability, e.g. young people with no work experience, people with lower educational status, the long-term unemployed, elderly people. Members of Roma population belong to the low employability group, both because of characteristics that are appreciated on the labour market (professional qualifications, work experience, etc.) and because of prejudices which are still present.
It is difficult to establish the share of the Roma in the registered unemployed, as is also the case with their share in the total population, and as a result their detailed socio-demographic and socio-economic structure remains unknown. Namely, unemployed Roma often declare themselves as members of some other ethnic group. The problem with registered unemployment is more pronounced especially because, as part of its official statistics, the Croatian Employment Bureau does not keep data on ethnic origin.
The analysis of Roma employment has revealed that causes of their problems with finding a job may be found in very low educational and qualification structure of members of this national minority. For example, the data on the educational structure of unemployed Roma registered in the Međimurska County show that very few of them have finished secondary school (of 1,300 Roma who were on the unemployment register in late November 2002, only 41 had secondary school qualifications), and a large number of younger Roma has not finished primary school or are illiterate.

GOAL:

Increase the employability of the Roma. Following the Recommendation Rec(2001)17 of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe on improving the economic situation of Roma, and having regard to the above mentioned difficulties faced by workers of Roma nationality in finding employment, a series of measures has been proposed which could increase the employability of this category of unemployed people, help them find a job and, in the end, improve their socio-economic position, as well as guarantee the Roma equal access to employment.

MEASURES:

1. Employment in public works programmes, in which the Croatian Employment Bureau has already gained some positive experiences. This form of employment may be implemented in several types of programmes:

a) The Roma for the Roma: a self-help programme for the Roma implemented through public works which are aimed at the construction of indispensable infrastructure for Roma settlements – the sewage system, electrification, basic health and other services.

b) The Roma for the Local Community: in view of the low employability and extremely unfavourable educational and qualification structure of the working-age Roma population, their employment has for the time being been made possible primarily within the programmes of public works in the local community, that is, mostly within the programmes of environmental protection, utility services, forestry and agriculture. These jobs are for non-qualified and semi-qualified workers.


1. Employment in public works programs. The Croatian Employment Institute has some positive experience in this already. Namely, this form of employment can be implemented in several types of programmes:

a) Roma for Roma: the programme of self-help by Roma, through public works developing the necessary infrastructure for Romany settlements – sewage, electrification, basic health care and other services.

b) Roma for the local community: because of low employability, that is the extremely unfavourable educational and qualification structure of the working-age Roma population, their employment is possible so far primarily in public works programmes in local communities, manly in programmes for the protection of the environment, communal activities, forestry and agriculture. These are jobs at the level of unskilled or semi-skilled workers.

Responsible body: local self-government units, the Croatian Employment Institute – Local Office, Romany associations. To implement the programme it is necessary to allocate 31,200.00 kunas per person annually. It is planned to include 100 persons in this program every year.
Time frame: ¸ from 2004 to 2008
Means: 3.120.000,00 kunas in 2004

2. Training and employment in all economic activities: In order to increase the employability of this population, the programmes of employment (especially of young people and women) must be accompanied by programmes of training, from simple to more complex levels, ranging from literacy classes, acquisition of knowledge and skills at the workplace to obtaining qualifications for a job. A total of HRK 10,000 per person have to be provided for implementation of these programmes every year. About 200 persons are planned to be included in the programme on an annual basis. (The training programme lasts up to three months).

Responsible body: the Ministry of Education and Sport and Croatian Employment Institute.
Time frame: from 2004 to 2008
Means: 1,000,000.00 kunas

3. Definition of programmes of self-employment in non-tied crafts. This programme would include preparation of complete business plans for potential self-employed persons, organisation of courses for acquisition of knowledge about the legal running of business and provision of initial funds for start-up. It would also provide for the monitoring of operations during the first year aimed at ensuring viability of the business venture. A total of HRK 10,000 per person, in the form of non-repayable funds for self-employment, have to be provided for implementation of this programme. Funds need to be provided for preparation of business plans (course, preparation of business plan, monitoring in the first year – HRK 3,000.00 per person). Fifty persons will be included in the programme every year.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Trades, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and the Croatian Employment Institute.
Time frame: from 2004 to 2008
Means: 650.000,00 kunas in 2004

4. Registration and inclusion of the Roma in the programmes for preparation for employment. Unemployed Roma people on the Croatian Employment Bureau's unemployment register should be invited for re-assessment of their working potential. As it is assumed that the majority of the Roma register with the competent employment services for the purpose of exercise of social welfare rights, it is necessary to assess their remaining ability to work.

Responsible body: Croatian Employment Institute –Local office
Time frame: in 2004
Means: 12,000.00 kunas in 2004

5. Hire 6 counsellors in charge of mediation in the employment of the Roma in the Croatian Employment Bureau and make them take part in additional training to inform them of Roma culture, educate them in the application of possible measures for the promotion of employment of the Roma and train them for structuring targeted motivation workshops for the needs of the Roma.

Funds should be provided for the implementation of this programme to cover the costs of lecturers, travel costs for counsellors and material costs (training materials, work sheets for counsellors). The seminar would be a 1-day event and would include a group of 12 counsellors from the areas inhabited by the Roma.

Responsible body: Croatian Employment Institute.
Time frame: in 2004
Means: to be provided in the Financial Plan of the Croatian Employment Institute for employment in 2004

6. Develop a system for the collection of secondary raw materials for recycling, which would mostly employ Roma people.

The objective of this measure is to employ the Roma in a comprehensive system involving economically justified activities of collection of secondary raw materials. This system would make it possible for them to have access to work on a daily basis and in the duration they determine by themselves, without excessive red tape. The measure is targeted at people belonging to a group of older population not willing to attend additional training which is necessary for permanent employment. It is well known that today Roma people are already involved, to some degree on an organised basis, in the activities of collecting and sorting various types of waste, but the undeveloped state of the system itself prevents them from drawing regular and sufficient income from this source. Accordingly, the following will be undertaken:

analyse the existing system of the collection of secondary raw materials (by the end of 2003 – the Ministry of the Economy)
prepare a business plan for the development and networking of companies carrying out these activities (June 2004 – the Ministry of the Economy)
provide funds to be invested in the development of this sector and finalise the project by the end of 2005
define the arrangements for organised daily departures to work by the Roma from pre-determined departure points, that is forming daily work groups that would be paid on the basis of their daily performance – (local administration and self-government, Roma communities and associations – in the course of 2005), provide for co-operation between Roma associations and Roma family leaders in organising daily work (before the system is operational).

Responsible body: Croatian Employment Institute, the Ministry of
Economy
Time frame: 2004-2005 and continuing
Means: It is necessary to submit a proposal for the project and a business plan to be financed from the CARDS programme or from other multilateral sources

7. Employment co-financing. Introduce subsidies for the employment of the Roma, payable for 24 months, to finance and co-finance the labour cost for employers, on the basis of a net salary of HRK 1,500.00 and, in particular, as follows:

100% of gross salary in the duration of 3 months for HRK 1,500.00 (net salary plus all contributions and taxes on and from the salary),
70% of gross salary for net salary of HRK 1,500.00 in the subsequent 9 months,
50% of gross salary for net salary of HRK 1,500.00 in the subsequent 12 months.
The total duration of contractual obligation and the period during which the co-financed worker is to be kept in employment is 24 months. Payments will be made to employers on a quarterly basis, and in particular for the first 3 months in advance, whereas after the 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th, 15th, 18th and 21st month of work, the employer will be obliged to provide the proof of payment of salaries and contributions in order that the next refund may be made.
Every employer who hires a Roma person from the Croatian Employment Bureau's unemployment register would be entitled to co-financing on a full-salary basis, for a period of 3 months. If the employer is not satisfied with the employee's work, he or she may, in this period, apply for a replacement from the same group of unemployed persons registered with the Croatian Employment Bureau. If, upon the expiry of this period, the employer terminates the co-financed worker's employment contract, the reason for such termination will be established and, depending on the reason established, actions will be taken to make replacement or request reimbursement of the funds paid.
In the year 2004 a total of HRK 610,500.00 will have to be provided for employment of 30 persons, whereas HRK 394,000.00 will have to be provided for the year 2005 for
exchange or refund of resources.

XI. SOCIAL WELFARE

GOALS:

Reduce poverty among the Roma

Reduce the number of working-age recipients of cash benefits

Prevent behaviour disorders of Roma children

Improve disabled people's quality of life

Apply family-law measures for the protection of Roma children

Encourage fosterhood in Roma families

Encourage the provision of humanitarian aid

XI. SOCIAL WELFARE

In spite of the fact that members of the Roma national minority living in the Republic of Croatia are to a significant degree covered by the rights from the social welfare system, the poverty and exclusion are social problems which are very much present in the Roma community.
The standard of living of the majority of the Roma is extremely low. Reduced access to health care, low educational levels, very poor housing conditions and low employment rate are only some of the factors which are conducive, in a cause-and-effect relationship, to persistent marginalisation of this group of the population and their dependency on social welfare and care by the society.
The social welfare system is regulated by the Social Welfare Act and regulations adopted under it. The provisions of this law prescribe that clients have the right to counselling, help in overcoming particular difficulties, support allowance, housing costs allowance, one-time allowance, assistance and care supplement, assistance and care in the home, personal disability benefit, training for independent life and work, care outside one's own family, as well as other types of assistance.
Support allowance is a benefit granted to individuals or families which do not have sufficient means necessary to meet their basic living needs to the prescribed extent and are not able to obtain these means by their work, income from property, from persons contractually obliged to maintain them or in another way. In addition to meeting the qualifying conditions related to income and means test, a working-age person must regularly report to the relevant employment service and accept every job offered, regardless of his or her qualifications.

The level of support allowance is determined as a percentage of the base for social welfare payments, which is set by the Government of the Republic of Croatia and which currently amounts to HRK 400.00.

The level of support allowance granted to a family is established depending on the number of family members, their age, ability to work, and other characteristics of the family concerned, which means that levels of support allowance received by various multi-member families are not the same.

According to the data from the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, in the Republic of Croatia there are 7,127 single persons and families of Roma nationality (the total of approximately 21,381 persons) who currently exercise the right to support allowance. If we take into account the estimated number of the Roma in the Republic of Croatia (30,000 to 40,000), it is evident that more than 50% of them live on welfare.

The share of Roma recipients of support allowance in the total number of recipients of support allowance in the Republic of Croatia is relatively big, that is, 13.56%.

The large number of beneficiaries of this right may be explained by the above-mentioned low educational levels and low employment rate, regardless of the fact that the majority of them are working-age persons and are young.

In addition to the large number of the Roma for whom support allowance is the main and often the only income in the family, the competent social welfare services have noticed that this benefit, which is primarily intended for the fulfilment of basic living needs, has not been spent for prescribed purposes. Namely, the majority of Roma families are affected not only by poverty but also by alcoholism from which many Roma people suffer. In relation to this, they also exhibit other forms of socially unacceptable behaviour, there is juvenile delinquency, prostitution, gambling, a large number of homicides, as well as offences against sexual freedom and sexual morality, etc. whose incidence is much higher in the days when this benefit is paid. For this reason, centres for social welfare avail themselves of the possibilities provided for by the law and award support allowance to Roma people in the form of an in-kind assistance.

In addition to support allowance, the Roma are also granted one-time allowance, as well as assistance in obtaining fuel and mandatory school-books.
Taking into account the total Roma population, social welfare rights for disabled people, namely, assistance and care supplement, assistance and care in the home, personal disability benefit, care outside one's own family and unemployment allowance, are granted very seldom. According to the data from the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, personal disability benefit is currently received only by 73 Roma in the Republic of Croatia, whilst the right to assistance and care is exercised by 265 of them.
This does not mean that there are no disabled people in Roma population or that their number is small, but rather that they are neglected by other family members who do not claim assistance for them, that competent services have not identified them and, as a result, they are insufficiently protected.
The low educational levels of parents and reduced access to health care are only some of the factors which have contributed to this situation. Furthermore, once they are granted the basic material right (support allowance), these people lose interest in other options and it often happens that neither health nor social services have information about a disabled person living in their area, and are thus unable to take specific measures.
Speaking of social welfare services, members of Roma national minority are often granted the right to counselling and help in overcoming particular difficulties. As part of these services, the professional staff from centres for social welfare offer assistance to them in order that they may overcome hardships and difficulties related to illness and old age, problems in raising children, household management, solve housing problems, obtain basic personal documents, etc.
The right to care outside one's own family, either by placement in a social welfare home or in a foster family is, according to the already mentioned source of data, exercised by 294 persons of Roma nationality, 134 of whom have been placed in foster families and 160 in social welfare homes. These data show that this right is not applied to a significant extent either as, because of their customs, Roma people and especially the elderly resist being accommodated outside their own families.
An especially important field of social welfare for Roma population is the field of family-law and criminal-law protection.
Under the public powers conferred upon it and in accordance with the provisions of the Family Act, with the aim of ensuring the protection and well-being of children, the centre for social welfare takes various measures against the parents who care for their children insufficiently. The measures for the protection of rights and well-being of children are, as a rule, taken gradually, that is, parents are first warned about mistakes and omissions in child care and raising and, if this measure has not produced any results, stricter measures are applied. The measure involving supervision over parental care is applied when mistakes and omissions in child care and raising have been frequent or when it is evident that parents need special assistance in raising their child. This measure may be applied for no longer than one year and during its application the responsible staff member helps the parent to raise and care for his or her child. If parental care has not improved in this period, and if the parent seriously neglects the raising and education of the child, for example, by failing to take sufficient care of his or her nutrition, hygiene, clothing, medical assistance, regular school attendance, by failing to prevent the child from engaging in vagrancy, begging and stealing and if the parent has not protected the child from harmful actions of other persons, the centre for social welfare will deprive him or her of the right to live with his or her child, raise him or her and will place the child in the custody of another person or institution. A parent who abuses or grossly neglects parental duties and rights will be deprived of parental care by a court decision. A gross abuse of parental duty includes: physical or mental violence against the child, sexual abuse of the child, coercion into excessive work, etc. Gross neglect of the child, amongst other things, includes neglect of the child's basic needs, child desertion, etc.
To illustrate actions taken by Centres of Social Welfare in the application of measures for the protection of rights and well-being of Roma children, we would like to point out that the measures mentioned (ranging from warning to deprivation of parental care) have been applied as follows: warning in 534 cases, supervision over parental care in 131 cases, placing in custody 166 times, and deprivation of parental care in 39 cases.
The data mentioned indicate that, in view of the actual situation, these measures are applied relatively rarely. Namely, it is known that many Roma children go begging, that they do not attend primary school and are not covered by vaccination, which is all indicative of abuse of children by their parents and calls for more frequent application of these measures. This also reveals that centres for social welfare show certain tolerance towards such behaviour displayed by parents.
The situation described above may be explained by the fact that, taking into account the traditional way of life of Roma families and conditions in which the Roma live (poor housing conditions in settlements located on the outskirts of urbanised communities, without basic infrastructure, inclination towards begging, non-attendance at school, etc.), the professional staff from centres for social welfare do not apply these legal provisions strictly, but rather give precedence to children's right to live with their parents and parents' natural right to live with their children.
Accordingly, the activities of social welfare services are primarily aimed at making material provision for Roma families, and the measures mentioned are applied only when the child's health or life is put at serious risk in his or her family. It is obvious that centres for social welfare show much more tolerance in the application of measures of family-law protection when it comes to Roma families and, as a rule, order that a parent be deprived of his or her right to parental care only when the child's health and life is really in serious danger. It is also clear that some measures need to be adapted to the traditional way of life but in doing so it is necessary to ensure full protection of the child's rights and interests. As the traditional way of life of the Roma is often incompatible with children's interests, it is necessary to promote, gradually and systematically, the rights and the best interests of the child.

Looking at the picture of the social situation of the Roma minority in Croatia in general (built up on the basis of social welfare rights granted to its members), one may come to the conclusion that, because of extremely poor material status, and in majority of cases also poverty and social exclusion, the Roma indispensably need government assistance for meeting their basic living needs.

GOAL:

Reducing poverty and number of working-age recipients of cash benefits, and increasing efficiency of the social welfare system, through involvement of Roma mentors, organising workshops for Roma population, training for Roma foster families.
Achieving consistent application of measures of family-law protection of Roma children.

MEASURES:

1. Hire an optimal number of professional workers in the centres for social welfare operating in the areas inhabited by Roma population. In view of specific qualities of such work, it is estimated that five graduate social workers should be hired in 2004.

Responsible body : the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare
Time frame: in 2004
Means: 360,000.00 kunas

2. Organise training for professional workers from centres for social welfare to help them understand better Roma population, including topics on Roma into curricula, and organising practical training in Roma settlements for students of the Department for Social Welfare, which would prepare them better for their future job.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare; Social Welfare Study Centre
Time frame: in 2004
Means: 100,000.00 kunas

3. Organise training for Roma mentors in implementation of measures of family-law protection and other activities which would ensure better co-ordination between social welfare services and the Roma.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare u cooperation with Romany and other associations
Time frame: in 2004
Means: 100,000.00 kunas

Organise a workshop for small groups of the Roma, with the following topics: providing information about fundamental rights from the social welfare system (material rights, rights of disabled people, measures of family-law and criminal-law protection, family relations, with special emphasis on the prevention of juvenile marriages entered into for financial compensation, interventions and possibilities for assistance in addressing family and/or marital relations, dealing with crisis situations in the family), possible ways of addressing behaviour disorders of children and youth, and problems related to addiction, especially to alcoholism, providing information about the ways of protection from trafficking in human beings and sexual abuse, etc.

Responsible body : social welfare centres, county public health institutes, Romany and other associations, local and regional self-government units
Time frame: 2004, and continuing
Means: 50.000,00 kunas in 2004

5. Foster the development of civil society organisations, including Roma associations, together with the implementation of programmes for the provision of humanitarian aid and social welfare services (setting up soup kitchens in settlements, organising provision of assistance and shelters for the homeless and victims of violence, programmes for acquisition of various skills and knowledge, organising free time for children and youth, etc.).

Responsible body: the Council for the Development of Civil Society, the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, local and regional self-government units, Romany associations
Time frame: 2004.godina and continuing
Means: 300,000.00 kunas through the National Foundation for the Development of Civil Society (CARDS program)

6. Conduct research on disabled Roma people in order to establish their number, type and degree of disability and to propose measures for improving the quality of life of disabled Roma people.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Health, the State Institute for the Protection of the Family, Motherhood and Youth, county institutes for public health, the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare in cooperation with Romany associations
Time frame: in 2004
Means: 300,000.00 kunas

7. Encourage the development of foster care in Roma families, especially with regard to placement of children lacking adequate parental care.

Responsible body: The Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, social welfare centres, non-governmental organisations
Time frame: 2004, and continuing
Means: there is no special expenditure

8. Organise training for professional workers from centres for social welfare in consistent application of measures of family-law protection of Roma children

Responsible body: the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare
Time frame: 2004, and continuing
Means: 100,000.00 kunas

XII. THE PROTECTION OF THE FAMILY, MOTHERHOOD AND YOUTH

GOALS:

To inform of rights arising from the system of protection of the family and motherhood.

Removal of stereotypes on male and female roles in the family

Preparation and distribution of educational material in the Roma language on rights arising from the system of protection of the family.

Creation of a program of affirmation of successful parenting

Incentives for the implementation of the program of education of Roma women on gender equality and elimination of all forms of discrimination

XII. PROTECTION OF THE FAMILY, MOTHERHOOD AND YOUTH

The State Institute for the Protection of the Family Motherhood and Youth undertook research during 2000 entitled “The Structure of Roma Families and the Concept of Parenthood In Them”. The research was carried out on a sample of 800 Roma parents, in the Republic of Croatia, in the places where they live, as follows:

abs. %
no
___________________________________
Zagreb 301 37,6
Međimurje 151 18,9
Banija 102 12,8
Baranja 99 12,4
Sl. Brod 50 6,3
Rijeka 97 12,1
___________________________________
Total 800 100,0

The hypothesis was tested by the research whereby there is a specific structure in Roma households and families, and the related specific concept of parenthood, which results in more difficult overall social integration and the promotion of their children.
The results obtained show the justification of accepting the hypothesis of the research and from them the following emerges, in very brief terms:

The typical characteristic of Roma families which has the most negative effect on the wider social integration of Roma children (that is their integration into the broader Croatian society) is their poverty – their extremely unfavourable material and housing conditions, the extremely high level of unemployment and the extremely low level of parental education. The common socially pathological occurrences in these families which have a negative effect on the development and up-bringing of the children are primarily the result of poverty and social isolation which make it possible to maintain traditional practices which directly violate the rights of the children, such as marriage of minors, child labour etc.

The birth rate in the Romany population is high and significantly higher than the Croatian average: only a little over 10% of households have up to three members, and almost half have six or more members. In contrast in the overall Croatian population covered by the 2001 Census, there were as many as 63.3% households with three or fewer members.
In 72.8% of Roma households surveyed, there is only one family, in 21.8% there are
two and in 5.4 % three (in one case four).

In Roma families the main decisions are made by the man, that is the husband, and the traditionally “woman’s” work (preparing food, cleaning the home, purchasing items needed for the household) and care for the children is done in most families by the women (90% of women take care of the household, and 74.1% of women take care of the children alone).

Less than 10% of Roma parents believe that the children should begin to earn a living as soon as the law allows (that is at 15), and more than half believe that they should be spared the obligation of earning money at least until they come of age or longer (answers for girls and those for boys differ slightly).

Only 11% of Roma parents questioned in the case of girls, and 6% in the case of boys, believe that they should be married before they are eighteen, whilst the answer on the optimal age for complete independence from the parents were higher. The answers for girls and boys did not differ significantly here either.

It appeared that most (about 77%) Roma parents recommend their children to have two or three children, which is more similar to the present average of the majority Croatian population than the present situation in the Roma population.

The Roma in Zagreb are above average in terms of expectations that their male children will complete university education, but the Roma from Baranja or Banija are much more convincing. It was noticed that only the Roma from Međimurje and Slavonski Brod settlements, believe in relatively large numbers that their male offspring only need to learn a trade, or finish a trade high school education. Illiterate parents dominantly believe that for their daughters it is sufficient for them to attend school up to fifteen years of age and those who have a high school education relatively more often believe that for girls a longer education is desirable.

The percentage of children who have broken off their education is much higher in families who have three or more male children who should be in school, and the number of children who occasionally avoid going to school is much higher than the average in families with more than three male children. The relationship of the number of female children who have started and then interrupted education is the same as male children, and we note that the number of children who have started and then interrupted education is much higher than the average in families who have four or more female children and also the number of children who occasionally avoid going to school is much higher than the average in families with three or more female children.

The results obtained justify at least two conclusions:

(1) Insufficient parental concern is one of the main reasons for the irregular attendance of school by Roma children

(2) The subjects who take more and better care of their children enabled them to complete higher grades of elementary or high school than those whose care for their own children was assessed to be “exceptionally poor” or “below average”.

The results of the research offer a good basis for planning activities aimed at the social strengthening of Roma families, children and young people.

GOAL:

To help Roma families by informing them of their rights to family protection and help Roma to eliminate the stereotypes of male and female roles in the family.
Discover Roma families and new mothers who, despite the existence of legal conditions for their realisation, do not make use of their right to child support allowance and maternity leave and to undertake activities for them to recognise these rights.

MEASURES:

1. Research the coverage of Roma families with family rights to child support allowance and maternity leave.

Responsible body:

The State Institute for the Protection of the Family, Motherhood and Youth,
The Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare (Croatian Pension Insurance Institute) and
The Ministry of Health (Croatian Institute for Health Insurance),
in cooperation with Romany associations

Time frame:

for the development of the plan for the implementation of the measure: 2003
for the implementation: 2004, and continuing

Means:

approximately 280.000,00 kunas (for the implementation of the field research)

2. Preparation, writing and distribution of education materials in the Roma language on rights arising from the family protection system to inform the Roma of their rights and how to realise them.

   

Responsible body:

The State Institute for the Protection of the Family, Motherhood and Youth, in cooperation with Romany associations

Time frame:

by the end of 2003 (distribution – continuing)

Means:

approximately 195,000.00 kunas

3. Creating programs to affirm successful parenting intended for the Roma within the family centres working in the areas settled by the Roma, with the aim of including the Roma population in the system of measures from the National family policies.

   

Responsible body:

The State Institute for the Protection of the Family, Motherhood and Youth, in cooperation with the founders of family centres

Time frame:

by the end of 2003, program implementation – continuing

Means:

100.000,00 kunas in 2004

4. Incentives and monitoring programs based on the National Program of Activities for Children especially aimed at the Roma population and affirmation the Convention on the Rights of the Child amongst Roma children.

   

Responsible body:

The State Institute for the Protection of the Family, Motherhood and Youth and the Council for Children, in cooperation with Romany associations and other associations

Time frame:

2004, and continuing (the State Institute would publicly invite tenders for the design of these programmes, following the adoption of the National Program for the Roma)

Means:

500,000.00 kunas in 2004

5. Monitoring the realisation of the rights of Roma rights.

Responsible body:

Children's Ombudsman

Time frame:

permanently

Means:

not necessary

6. Inclusion of young Roma in activities in the National Program of Activities for Young People with special emphasis on measures relating to the young Roma population, which are:

The creation and ensuring the implementation of a program of educational workshops to support young Roma who are not included in the formal educational system;
Development of a program for active encouragement and help for young Roma to complete elementary school education, and inclusion in the system of high school and further education;
Continual implementation of programs training young Roma to work, additional qualifications and conversion courses, to make them more employable;
Provide the systematic education of assistants (tutors) to work in Roma communities and their inclusion in the work of the system of social welfare, pre-school and elementary education;
Create a special program of support and monitoring for young Roma families with children.

Responsible body:

The State Institute for the Protection of the Family, Motherhood and Youth as the coordinator of the implementation of the National Programme for Youth, and every measure in the programme includes the designation of responsible bodies

Time frame:

for the preparation of the implementing programmes of measures: in 2004

Means:

to be provided within the framework of the implementation of the National Programme of Action for Youth

7-. Encourage programs by NGOs aimed at the affirmation and enlightenment of women on human rights and gender equality, affirmation of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination amongst Roma Women, by organising: discussions, seminars, education on the subject of gender equality and human rights, support groups etc.

   

Responsible body:

the office for Human Rights, the State Institute for the Protection of the Family, Motherhood and Youth, Commission for Gender Equality, non-governmental organisations for women's rights

Time frame:

continuing

Means:

from the resources allocated in the State Budget, office for Human Rights, for the support of projects and programmes of associations

XIII. TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING

GOALS:


To research the spatial organization of the locations settled by Roma

Spatial organisation of the locations settled by Roma

To draw up county programs to legalise locations settled by Roma

XIII ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

The organisation of the environment and urbanisation and organisation of the settlements, and thus the locations settled by Roma is being carried out in accordance with the Town and Country Planning Act and the Local and Regional Self-Government Act. This includes the drawing up, adoption and implementation of documents on environmental planning and the improvement of the site and comes under the authority of the units of local self-government. Since the system of planning and the improvement of settlements or parts of settlements is not based on the principles of national or ethnic identity of the population nor are any data kept on this basis on land and the use of land, it is not possible from the existing sources to gather data and on the basis of that data to offer a relevant overview and assessment of the state of individual locations settled mainly or exclusively by Roma.

Assessment of the situation is based on partially available data, assessments and information from county environment institutes from 2001, and this cannot be considered to be a good starting point for a systematic and comprehensive proposal of measures to improve the situation in locations settled by Roma. Therefore in the measures it is proposed that a database be set up on locations settled by Roma within the establishment and running of the environmental planning information system of the Republic of Croatia. In general this indicates that the areas settled by Roma in the Republic of Croatia are as a rule characterized by illegal construction, most frequently outside the built up area of a settlement, on land belonging to someone else (the state, municipality, city or privately owned) and therefore with unsatisfactory communal infrastructure and with no social or economic facilities.

On consideration of the disorderly and ill-equipped areas illegally settled by the Roma, it may be seen from the county reports that there are several basic models and here lies the weight of the problem:

Romany settlements within a built up area are not concentrated settlements in an area, the Roma usually move in illegally to old and deserted buildings, which are often about to be demolished;
These areas are within the built up area of a settlement, but on land intended for other purposes, therefore they are illegally built parts of the settlement;
Separate areas, outside the built up area which are illegally built settlements.

In relation to the above, the counties may be divided into three basic categories:

1. Counties who state that they have no records of areas settled by Roma nor any Romany households (6): the Krapina-Zagorje County, Požega-Slavonia County, Zadar County, Šibenik-Knin County, Split-Dalmatia County and Dubrovnik-Neretva County.

2. Counties which assess that there are a certain number of areas integrated into the existing built-up areas of towns or municipalities as part of these settlements, but on land intended for other purposes, and therefore illegally built (8) : the Zagreb County, Karlovac County, Bjelovar-Bilogora County, Slavonski Brod-Posavina County, Osijek-Baranja County, Vukovar-Srijem County, Istria County and the City of Zagreb;

3. Counties with a significant problem (with separate locations and/or integrated into existing settlements) (7): the Sisak-Moslavna County, Varaždin County, Koprivnica-Križevci County, Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, Lika-Senj County, Virovitica-Podravina County and Međimurska County.

It is reckoned that the Romany community in the Republic of Croatia is registered in a total of 15 counties at about 100 locations of a variety of sizes, of which 40 locations are built outside the built up area and 60 locations are a collection of buildings within the built up area of a settlement (part of the settlement), and several individual areas with 1-2 Roma families. For the ten counties where there is a large number of locations, assessments are given from which it emerges that in their territory (the Sisak-Moslavna County, Varaždin County, Koprivnica-Križevci County, Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, Lika-Senj County, Virovitica-Podravina County, Slavonski Brod-Posavina County, Istria County, Međimurje County and the City of Zagreb) at about 70 locations there are about 12,000 Roma living in approximately 2,000 families.

GOAL:

To create the conditions for the urbanisation of the areas settled by Roma. The expected result is urbanisation and the raising of the standard of living of the Roma.

In order to gain an insight into the present situation, and a starting point for drawing up actual and effective and appropriate measures for systematic improvement, research of the accommodation and state of the locations settled by the Roma is the first step and a vital precondition, to see the size, numbers and condition of the buildings, the infrastructure and public facilities available, the condition of the environment etc. according to county, municipality and city. Therefore the following measures are proposed:

MEASURES:

1. Research of the spatial organisation and characterisation of the locations settled by Roma in the Republic of Croatia.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Urban Development and Construction (the coordinator for the implementation of the measure), the institution for science and research in cooperation with the competent professional staff of local and regional self-government units, community self-governments, councils/representatives of the Romany national minority, representatives of the Romany associations and other non-governmental organisations.
Time frame: in 2004
Means: 500.000,00 kunas in 2004

2. Drawing up county programs of activities and measures to improve the condition of the area and environment of the locations settled by Roma

On the basis of the results of the research in Measures point 1, county programs will be drawn up of activities and measures to improve the condition of the area and environment of the locations settled by Roma, in the counties with the problem in question. The programs will establish in detail the work and tasks, which are necessary to carry out and the manner, time frame and those responsible for the implementation. The means necessary for the work and the sources of funding will also be determined.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Urban Development and Construction (the coordinator for the implementation of the measure), in cooperation with county institutes for urban development in the counties where these issues are present, with local self-government units, with county councils/representatives of the Romany national minority, representatives of Romany associations and other non-governmental organisations
Time frame: 2004 - 2005
Means: 500,000.00 kunas in 2004

3. Incentives for the regulation of property law relations on state-owned land

On the basis of the results of the research in Measures, point 1, and during the writing of the county programs of activities and measures for improving the condition of the area and environment of locations settled by Roma, the property law relations regarding the land will be regulated. Where this is being done for state-owned land, insofar as there are no hindrances, attempts will be made to solve it in one of the following ways: sale by direct agreement, cession without payment, granting of permission for usage, transfer of ownership to the unit of local self-government or in another appropriate manner, depending on the abilities.

Responsible body: Office for State Property of the Government of the Republic of Croatia in cooperation with local and regional self-government units
Time frame: in 2004 and 2005
Means: to be determined

4. Implementation of the county programs of activities and measures to improve the condition of the area and environment of locations settled by Roma

Responsible body: The Ministry of Environmental Protection, Urban Development and Construction (the coordinator for the implementation of the measure), in cooperation with county institutes for urban development in the counties where these issues are present, with local self-government units, with county councils/representatives of the Romany national minority, representatives of Romany associations and other non-governmental organisations
Time frame: after the implementation of Item 2. of the Measures, until the completion of implementation
Means: in accordance with Item 2

5. Continual monitoring of the state of locations settled by Roma

The establishment of a database on the condition and improvement of the condition of locations settled by Roma, with further monitoring of the process and activities in the area and environment. This will be implemented as part of the setting up and running of the environmental planning information system of the Republic of Croatia for the purpose of continual monitoring of the situation in the area, writing of reports on the state of the area, program measures for improving the condition of the area and environmental planning documents at all levels.

Responsible body: the Ministry of Environmental Protection, Urban Development and Construction (the coordinator for the implementation of the measure), county institutes for urban development, municipalities and towns
Time frame: permanently
Means: additional means not necessary


XIV. MONITORING AND THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NATIONAL PROGRAM FOR THE ROMA

GOALS:
Time frame: permanently
Means: additional means not necessary

XIV. MONITORING AND THE IMPLEMENTATOIN OF THE NATIONAL PROGRAM FOR THE ROMA

GOAL:

To adopt a Programme which will enable the improvement of living conditions for the Roma in the Republic of Croatia, their faster and easier integration in society, while preserving their cultural specific characteristics.

The implementation of the Program will be monitored systematically, and its amendments will be proposed as necessary.

MEASURES:

The Measures of the Programme encourage the development of tolerance between the Roma and the rest of the population, they teach how to accept differences and exercise human and minority rights.

1. Upon a proposal by the Office for National Minorities, the Government of the Republic of Croatia will establish a Commission for Monitoring the Implementation of the National Programme for Roma, composed of:

- the Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Croatia, President of the Commission
one representative of the Ministry of the Interior
one representative of the Ministry Foreign Affairs
one representative of the Ministry Justice, Administration and Local Self-government
one representative of the Ministry for European Integration
one representative of the Ministry Health
one representative of the Ministry Education and Sport,
one representative of the Ministry Labour and Social Welfare
one representative of the Ministry Culture
one representative of the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Urban Planning
one representative of the State Institute for the Protection of the Family, Motherhood and Youth
one representative of the Office for National Minorities of the Government of the Republic of Croatia
one representative of the Office for Human Rights of the Government of the Republic of Croatia
one representative of Međimurje County
one representative of the City of Zagreb
one representative of non-governmental organisations in the field of human rights
seven representatives from Romany councils, at the local and regional levels, and of Romany associations.

Professional and administrative tasks for the Commission will be carried out by the Office for National Minorities of the Government of the Republic of Croatia.

The Commission for the Monitoring of the implementation of the Programme shall write and submit a report to the Government of the Republic of Croatia on the implementation of the Programme once a year, on the basis of the reports from individual ministries and other state bodies and of other bodies responsible for the implementation of the measures.


Responsible body: The Government of the Republic of Croatia
Time frame: one month after the adoption of the Programme
Means: 100,000.00 kunas

2. The bodies of state administration will plan the means for the implementation of the measures which are not covered by their regular activities in the State Budget for 2004.

2. Decision on Appointing President and Members of Commission for Monitoring the Implementation of the National Programme for Roma
VLADA REPUBLIKE HRVATSKE
797
Na temelju članka 30. stavka 4. Zakona o Vladi Republike Hrvatske (»Narodne novine«, br. 101/98, 15/2000, 117/2001 i 199/2003) i točke III. stavka 1. Odluke o osnivanju Povjerenstva za praćenje provedbe Nacionalnog programa za Rome (»Narodne novine«, br. 187/2003 i 20/2004), Vlada Republike Hrvatske je na sjednici održanoj 3. ožujka 2004. godine donijela
RJEŠENJE
O IMENOVANJU PREDSJEDNICE I ČLANOVA POVJERENSTVA ZA PRAĆENJE PROVEDBE NACIONALNOG PROGRAMA ZA ROME

1. Imenuje se JADRANKA KOSOR, dipl. iur., potpredsjednica Vlade Republike Hrvatske i ministrica obitelji, branitelja i međugeneracijske solidarnosti, predsjednicom Povjerenstva za praćenje provedbe Nacionalnog programa za Rome, po položaju.
2. Za članove Povjerenstva za praćenje provedbe Nacionalnog programa za Rome, imenuju se:
– ŽARKO KATIĆ
– dr. sc. DUBRAVKA ŠIMONOVIĆ
– ĐURĐICA ALANOVIĆ BOJOVIĆ
– mr. sc. DUBRAVKA VLAŠIĆ PLEŠE
– DRAGUTIN KESERICA
– JADRANKA HULJEV
– KSENIJA ŽRVNAR
– SREĆKO ŠESTAN
– JADRANKA VRANEK
– JANA ZEMBA, dr. med.
– mr. sc. MILENA KLAJNER
– SILVIJA TRGOVEC GREIF
– BLAŽENKA NOVAK
– ŽELJKA BARIĆ
– DUSHAKO DELMATHO
– BOŽO NIKOLIĆ
– ALIJA MEŠIĆ
– SURIJA MEMETI
– RAMIZA MEMEDI
– ČEDO TODOROVIĆ
– NADICA BALOG
ELVIS KRALJ.

Klasa: 080-02/04-01/193
Urbroj: 50304/2-04-02
Zagreb, 3. ožujka 2004.
Predsjednik
dr. sc. Ivo Sanader, v. r.


1 Croatian Bureau of Statistics, data on Census 2001 conducted from the 1st to the 15th of April 2001, pursuant to the Law on Population, Housing and Dwelling Censuses from 2001. The data have been collected on territorial distribution, demographic, economic and educational characteristics of the population and on the household and family structure. Population data have been processed according to a place of usual residence, account not being taken of temporary absence of up to 12 months.

2 The biggest minority group is Serbian, they make 4,54%. Italians make 0,44%, Bosniacs 0,47%, Chechs 0,24% and Hungarians 0,37%.

3 Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorites in its Opinion on Croatia, adopted on 6 April 2001 (p.29) also noticed wide discrepancies between the official statistics of the Government and the actual number of persons belonging to national minorities in Croatia

4 The National Program for Roma, October 2003

5 The ERRC in Croatia, Field report by Savelina Danova and Rumyan Russinov, summer 1998; Roma / Gypsies: A European Minority, Minority Rights Group International, Report by Jean-Pierre Liegeois and Nicolae Gheorghe, October 1995

6 The National Program for Roma, October 2003

7 interview with the local consultant on January 30, 2004

8 The National Program for Roma, October 2003

9 Hrvatić, Ivančić 2000, Historical-Social Characteristics of Roma in Croatia, Social Researches nr. 2-3 (46-47, p. 251-266

10 Structure of Roma Families and Understanding of Content of Parenthood (Struktura romskih obitelji i poimanje sadržaja roditeljstva u njima), Croatian Bureau for Protection of Family, Motherhood and Youth, dr. Slobodan Uzelac and others, scientific research, 2002

11 Međimurje Governer, Branko Levačić, in the interview on March 10, 2004 explained to the consultants that before 1991 almost all Roma were employed because back then companies were owned by state and they were obliged to employ Roma, but that in reality, they were employed and paid, but they were not working, they did not go to work, they were just paid for doing nothing, "we had here huge companies, with 8000 workers. They could afford keeping 200 Roma who did not work.".

12 Mirjana Bogdanović Kramber in Strategies Agains Unemployment (Strategije protiv nezaposlenosti), Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Zagreb, 2001

13 Sanja Crnković Pozaić in Strategies Against Unemployment (Strategije protiv nezaposlenosti), Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, Zagreb, 2001

14 Comparing to 60-70% in the European Union countries

15 Data of the Independent Trade Union Associations of Croatia (Savez samostalnih sindikata Hrvatske) (Trade Union Association):

16 National Program for Roma: According to the former Ministry of Labour and Social Care 21.381 Roma persons receive social benefit.

17 Jelena Čugalj from Čakovec Centre for social care in interview with the local consultant conducted on January 30, 2004

18 Janja Balent in interview with the local consultant conducted on January 30, 2004

19 Culture of Peace (Kultura mira), Association of Roma Beli Manastir project, research conducted in December 2000

20 Lovrić, Branka: Croatian Roma at the Beginning of the Third Millenium (Hrvatski Romi na pragu trećeg tisućljeća), April 2000

21 Jutarnji list (daily), December 11, 2003 quoting Ms. Mačetić-Kapetanović, head of Center for social care in Pešćenica

22 Structure of Roma Families and Understanding of Content of Parenthood (Struktura romskih obitelji i poimanje sadržaja roditeljstva u njima), Croatian Bureau for Protection of Family, Motherhood and Youth, dr. Slobodan Uzelac and others, scientific research, 2002

23 Roma NGOs in interviews with the local consultant

24 According to data of Croatian Employment Bureau office in Čakovec 97% of Roma women have no qualification at all comparing to 84% of Roma men

25 Structure of Roma Families and Understanding of Content of Parenthood (Struktura romskih obitelji i poimanje sadržaja roditeljstva u njima), Croatian Bureau for Protection of Family, Motherhood and Youth, dr. Slobodan Uzelac and others, scientific research, 2002 and interviews with Romani NGOs

26 The National Action Plan for Young People, see part IV.

27 local consultant's interview with Roma in Međimurje

28 Vecernji list (daily), quoting Marijan Vukšić, Deputy Governer, September 26, 2003; Governer Branko Levačić in the interview with the consultants on March 10, 2004

29 Predrag Bejaković from Institute for Public Finances (Institut za javne financije) Zagreb in TI Croatia e-billetin 2/2002, Zagreb

30 Janja Balent, Head of the Centre for social care in Čakovec in interview with the local consultant

31 Croatian Helsinki Committee for Human Rights, Statement nr. 118, May 18, 2000

32 Structure of Roma Families and Understanding of Content of Parenthood (Struktura romskih obitelji i poimanje sadržaja roditeljstva u njima), Croatian Bureau for Protection of Family, Motherhood and Youth, dr. Slobodan Uzelac and others, scientific research, 2002

33 Branka Lovrić, Croatian Roma at the Beginning of the Third Millenium (Hrvatski Romi na pragu trećeg tisućljeća), research made in April 2000 in Roma settlements Struge and Kozari put in Zagreb

34 Zoon, Ina: Report on obstacles facing the Roma minority of Croatia in accesing different categories of rights and namely citizenship, housing, health and social assistance, September 2002

35 Head of the Čakovec Employment Bureau in interview with the local consultant

36 Večernji list (daily), September 26, 2003 and interviews with Roma NGOs in Međimurje

37 interview with Vladimir Zebec, Head of the Employment office in Čakovec, on February 20, 2004

38 Structure of Roma Families and Understanding of Content of Parenthood (Struktura romskih obitelji i poimanje sadržaja roditeljstva u njima), Croatian Bureau for Protection of Family, Motherhood and Youth, dr. Slobodan Uzelac and others, scientific research, 2002.

39 Structure of Roma Families and Understanding of Content of Parenthood (Struktura romskih obitelji i poimanje sadržaja roditeljstva u njima), Croatian Bureau for Protection of Family, Motherhood and Youth, dr. Slobodan Uzelac and others, scientific research, 2002

40 In its Second report on Croatia (Strasbourg, 3 July 2001) ECRI reported discriminatory effect of the Law on Croatian Citizenship on some segments of the population, particularly some Serbs and Roma, "this law has left without Croatian citizenship individuals who have been long-term or life-long residents of what is today the Republic of Croatia due to the conditions for acquiring citizenship established by this law. Such individuals have faced difficulties in accessing basic rights such as the right to repossess their property or receive reconstruction assistance, the right to work, the right to receive social benefits and, for those displaced outside Croatia’s borders, the right to return. This problem arises both from the provisions of the law and its application". Fore more information see: Zoon, Ina: Report on obstacles facing the Roma minority of Croatia in accesing different categories of rights and namely citizenship, housing, health and social assistance, September 2002.

41 Jutarnji list, December 11, 2003

42 Opinion on Croatia's Application for Membership of the European Union, Communication from the Commission, Brussels, 20 April 2004, COM(2004) 257 final, page 86.

43 Employment Promotion Programme, Official Gazzete 21/02

44 “No measures seem to exist on behalf of long-term unemployed.” Opinion on Croatia's Application for Membership of the European Union, COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION, Brussels, 20 April 2004, COM(2004) 257 final, page 86.

45 Vera Babić, State Secretary for Labour, Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship, at the meeting with the consultants on March 8, 2004

46 adopted by the Government on its 5th session on September 5, 2002

47 Opinion on Croatia's Application for Membership of the European Union, COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION, Brussels, 20 April 2004, COM(2004) 257 final, page 87

48 Povjerenstvo za ravnopravnost spolova

49 Vera Babić, State Secretary for Labour, Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship, at the meeting with the consultants on March 8, 2004

50 See bellow, section 3, Policy implementation and monitoring

51 935.000 kn Office for National Minorities, 50.000 kn Ministry of Health and Social Care and 1.000.000 kn Ministry for Enviroment, Milena Klajner, Head of the Office for National Minorities in the interview with the consultants on March 6, 2004

52 Ibid

53 See Annex no 1

54 Vera Babić, State Secretary for Labour, Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship, at the meeting with the consultants on March 8, 2004

55 interview with Branko Levačić on March 10, 2004

56 interview with Nada Kerovec from Croatian Employment Service on March 8, 2004

57 Vera Babić, State Secretary for Labour, Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship, at the meeting with the consultants on March 8, 2004

58 letter of July 21, 2004 sent to Veljko Kajtazi, candidate for Roma councelor, by Zrinka Blažević, Head of the Croatian Employment Bureau

59 interview with Dario Baron from Croatian Employment Service on March 8, 2004

60 Zagreb Official Gazette 23/2003

61 interview with Ana Butković, Head of the Commission for Care about Roma Citizens in the City of Zagreb, May 20, 2004

62 Chapter XIV of the National Programme for Roma (see Annex no. 2)

63 Decision on Appointing the President and the Members of the Commission for the Monitoring of the Implementation of the National Programme for Roma (see Annex no.2)

64 Milena Klajner, Head of the Office for National Minorities in the interview with the consultants on March 6, 2004; Vera Babić, State Secretary for Labour, Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship, at the meeting with the consultants on March 8, 2004

65 Vera Babić, State Secretary for Labour, Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship, at the meeting with the consultants on March 8, 2004

66 Some authorities, like Međimurje county, thinks that any program for Roma should be financed by foreign donors and not by the county funds.

67 interview with Zdenka Ninić and Jana Zemba in the Ministry for Family, War Veterans and Intergenerational Solidarity, March 17, 2004

68 www.soros.org/initiatives/roma/press/decade_20030701 and lnweb18.worldbank.org/eca/ecshd.nsf/0/5acb3fb63019d944c1256d6a00438015?opendocument&Start=1&Count=1000&ExpandView

69 Official Gazette 32/02, 86/02 and 114/03

70 Training workshop for the staff of local employment services working with Roma jobseekers, Conclusions and Recommendations, Workshop II – Croatia (Čakovec, 27-29 May 2002).

71 Interview with Vladimir Zebec, Head of the Employment office in Čakovec, on February 20, 2004

72 Ibid

73 Their work is also governed by the Act on Employment Mediation and Entitlements during Unemployment and the antidiscrimination provisions of the Labour Law.

74 Art.4. of the Law on State Inspectorate, Official Gazzete 76/99

75 interview with Branko Jordanić, at the time Head of the State Inspectorate, and Ilija Tadić, Assistant Chief Inspector and Head of the Labour Inspectorate, March 9, 2004

76 Official Gazzete 41/2001

77 signed November 1996; ratified November 5, 1997; entered into force November 5, 1997

78 signed March 6, 2002; ratified February 3, 2003

79 signed March 8, 1999; ratified February 26, 2003; entred into force March 28, 2003

80 signed March 8, 1999; ratified February 26, 2003 and entered into force April 1, 2003

81 signed November 6, 1996; ratified October 11, 1997 and entered into force February 1, 1998

82 by the notification on succession, Official Gazzete International Agreements 12/1993

83 Official Gazzete of the SFRY 4/64, Official Gazzete International Agreements 12/93

84 by notification on succession, Official Gazzete International Agreements 12/1993

85 Official Gazzete International Agreements 2/94 and 5/00

86 art. 140 of the Constitution of the Republic of Croatia

87 Official Gazzete 41/2001

88 Official Gazzete 155/02

89 Official Gazzete 38/95, 54/95, 65/95, 17/01, 82/01, 114/03, 117/03, 142/03

90 Law on Rights of the Veterans of the Homeland War and Members of Their Families, Official Gazzete 94/01 and 122/02.

91 Law on Professional Rehabilitation and Employment of Disabled Persons, Official Gazzete 143/02

92 ECRI second report on Croatia, Strasbourg, 3 July 2001

93 Official Gazzete 109/03

94 Official Gazzete 194/03

95 Official Gazzete 110/97, 27/98, 50/00, 129/00,51/01, 111/03 and 190/03

96 Art.106.p.1. of the Criminal law – who denys or limits freedom or right established by the Constitution, law or other regulation or gives privilage or benefit because of his/her race, colour, gender, language, religion, political or other belief, ethnic or social origin, property, birth, education, social postion or other characteristic, or because of her/his belonging to ethnical or national minority

97 Art 114 of the Criminal law – who denys or limits right to work, freedom of work, free choice of profession or employment, accesability of work place nad duty to everyone under same conditions, right to salary, working time and pause regulated by law, rights from social or pension insurance, rights from special protection of certain groups of workers, rights based on unemployment, rights in connection with maternity and care of children, or other rights established by law or collective agreement

98 Art.174.p.1. of the Criminal law - violation of basic human rights and freedoms recognized by the international community due to the race, gender, colour, national or ehnic origin

99 Art.174.p.2. of the Criminal law - persecuting organizations or individuals because of their pleading for equality of people

100 Art.174.p.3. of the Criminal law

101 ECRI Second report on Croatia, Strasbourg, 3 July 2001

102 Ombudsman report for 2004; Croatian Helsinki Committee for Human Rights

103 According to the Republic of Croatia on Implementation on the Framework Convention on National Minorities from March 2004 there are 5,5% of members of national minorities at the municipal courts, 8,2% at county courts, 0,7% at the commercial courts and 5,6% at the Supreme Court, Administrative court and the High Commercial court together; there are 15% of members of national minorities working in the state administration (comparing to 7,47% being the procentage of national minorities in the whole population according to the 2001 census)

104 Official Gazzete 27/01

105 Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorites, Opinion on Croatia, adopted on 6 April 2001, p.23

106 ECRI Second report on Croatia, Strasbourg, 3 July 2001

107 Ombudsman report for 2000, Zagreb March 2001, page 97

108 ECRI Second report on Croatia, Strasbourg, 3 July 2001

109 Initial Report of the Republic of Croatia on the Implementation of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, 1999, para 29

110 confirmed by presidents of the mentioned courts, by Ms. Vera Babić from Ministry of Economy, Labour and Enterpreneurship; Dušanka Marinković Drača, lawyer at the Savez samostalnih sindikata Hrvatske; Radovan Ivančević, Association of Employers, Večernji list June 4, 2003

111 interviews with Romani victims of discrimination

112 dr.sc. Alan Uzelac, Access to Justice – Situation in the Republic of Croatia, Zagreb, 2003

113 Vjesnik, December 13, 2001

114 Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorites, Opinion on Croatia adopted on 6 April 2001, p.31

115 Governor of Međimurje said: “I feel threatened in my own town because they [Roma] harass me when I go to have a coffee; I feel threatened because they [Roma] harass me in my neighbourhood; I feel threatened when I go to the hospital - there they [Roma] are loud and quarrel with the staff and finally get better treatment than I do. Sooner or later, the Međimurje County will have a big fight because of the Romani population.” He added, “All citizens of the Međimurje County feel threatened to send their children to school together with the Romani children” and that “the residents of Međimurje County do not deserve such treatment by a marginal group.” In another interview Mr Levačić stated that “Several raids per year in the Romani neighbourhoods are not enough." (Jutarnji list, March 5, 2001)

116 Official Gazzete 76/99, 128/99, 68/01, 109/01, 122/03, 158/03 and 177/03

117 most media usually stress ethnic origin of the perpetrator of a crime when crime has been committed by Roma person; in February 2004 on Zagreb local Radio 101 speaker commented how Roma, when cleaning car shields for money on the streets, make cars dirtier by touching them

118 Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorites, Opinion on Croatia adopted on 6 April 2001, p.54; Ombudsman Report for 2000; Human Rights Watch Report 2003; Croatian Helsinki Committee statement of May 18, 2000; Written Comments of the European Roma Rights Center Concerning the Republic of Croatia For Consideration by the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination at its 60th Session, March 4-5, 2002; U.S. Department of State report on Croatia for 2000; concluding observations and recommendations of the International Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) of March 19, 2002;

119 Blaženka Novak from Međimurje county in magazine Budućnost: "The truth is that Roma are not wanted warkers due to their lack of education and way of living"

120 Statistics provided by the Government in July 2000 for the Report to the Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorites, Opinion on Croatia adopted on 6 April 2001, p.55

121 According to the 2001 census, population of the Međimurje county is 118.426 and there are about 5.000 Roma living in Međimurje

122 Official Gazette, no. 112/00

123 interview with Vladimir Zebec, Head of the Employment office in Čakovec, on February 20, 2004

124 Vera Babić, State Secretary for Labour, Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship, at the meeting with the consultants on March 8, 2004

125 Research on Employers Attitudes towards Women’s' Professional and Family Activities (Struktura romskih obitelji i poimanje sadržaja roditeljstva u njima), State Office for Protection of Family, Motherhood and Youth; research made by women's organization B.a.B.e., Zagreb, 2002

126 see part VII.

127 Structure of Roma Families and Understanding of Content of Parenthood (Struktura romskih obitelji i poimanje sadržaja roditeljstva u njima), State Bureau for Protection of Family, Motherhood and Youth, dr. Slobodan Uzelac and others, scientific research, Zagreb, 2002.

128 in comparison to population in general where 80.8% of the Croatian population older than 15 years have completed at least elementary school, another 15.7% have some elementary school education whilst 3.6% have no schooling or data on their education are unknown. 47.1% have completed some form of secondary school education, college (two-year post-secondary) 4.1% and 7.8% have completed university or art academy education. Each year in Croatia more than 100,000 pupils complete elementary or high school, and about 14,000 graduate from university and professional studies (data of the Croatian Bureau of Statistics)

129 Written Comments of the European Roma Rights Center Concerning the Republic of Croatia For Consideration by the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination at its 60th Session, March 4-5, 2002; US State Department Report on Croatia for 2000

130 children of war veterans etc.

131 Zoon, Ina: Report on obstacles facing the Roma minority of Croatia in accesing different categories of rights and namely citizenship, housing, health and social assistance, September 2002

132 Ibid

133 The World Bank Report on Economic Vulnerability and Welfare Study for Croatia, Report No 22079-HR, The World Bank, April 2001

134 National Program for Roma