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Judicial professions

For judicial public services to function well, a constructive dialogue is called for, not only within the different court services, but also between those principally involved - Ministries of justice, courts, public prosecutor's offices, legal and judicial professions and legal assistants. The needs of the litigants or, better, of the users of judicial services, should also be heard.

With this in mind, work has been carried out concerning the main "actors" of judicial procedures, with a view to promoting a constructive dialogue between them, thereby improving the functioning of the justice system as a whole.





However good the laws of States may be, they will only be effective where the judges are independent, impartial, competent and efficient. Therefore the Council of Europe has always considered questions relating to judges as having very high priority.

Consultative Council of European Judges (CCJE)
Presidents of European Supreme Courts
Lisbon network
Co-operation activities

  The Council of Europe also helps to harmonise the rules on lawyers, who play a key role in safeguarding the right to a fair trial. Recommendation (2000) 21 on the freedom of exercise of the profession of lawyer, which lays down general principles on the legal training of lawyers and their entry into the profession, professional standards, the role and duties of lawyers, disciplinary proceedings and access for everyone to lawyers is relevant here. (more...)



Court clerks

The prosecuting authorities play a crucial role as the interface between governments, which are responsible for crime policy, and courts, which must be independent. Their functions and powers thus depend on a balance, which is not easily defined. (more...)  

Court clerks play an essential role in the administration of the judicial system as they carry out important non-judicial tasks and thereby enable judges to concentrate on judicial matters. (more...)


Enforcement agents



As part of its programmes of legal co-operation, the Council of Europe has, for several years, assisted States in developing and strengthening their systems of execution of court decisions in civil and commercial cases. In doing so, the Organisation has focused its attention on improving both the procedures of execution and the practices of enforcement agents. (more...)  

We are working with Ministries of justice and representatives of the notary’s profession on defining the organisation of that profession, which helps to guarantee security of legal transactions. (more...)