Reservations and Declarations for Treaty No.005 - Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms

Nature of declaration : Reservations
Status as of 23/09/2017

Russian Federation

Reservation appended to the instrument of ratification deposited on 5 May 1998 - Or. Engl./Fr./Rus.

In accordance with Article 64 of the Convention [Article 57 since the entry into force of the Protocol No 11], the Russian Federation declares that the provisions of Article 5, paragraphs 3 and 4, shall not prevent the application of the following provisions of the legislation of the Russian Federation:

- the temporary application, sanctioned by the second paragraph of point 6 of Section Two of the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation, of the procedure for the arrest, holding in custody and detention of persons suspected of having committed a criminal offence, established by Article 11, paragraph 1, Article 89, paragraph 1, Articles 90, 92, 96, 961, 962, 97, 101 and 122 of the RSFSR Code of Criminal Procedure of 27 October 1960, with subsequent amendments and additions;

- Articles 51-53 and 62 of the Disciplinary Regulations of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, approved by Decree no. 2140 of the President of the Russian Federation of 14 December 1993 - based on Article 26, paragraph 2, of the Law of the Russian Federation “On the Status of Servicemen” of 22 January 1993 - instituting arrest and detention in the guard-house as a disciplinary measure imposed under extra-judicial procedure on servicemen - private soldiers, seamen, conscripted non-commissioned officers, non commissioned officers and officers.

The period of validity of these reservations shall be the period required to introduce amendments to the Russian federal legislation which will completely eliminate the incompatibilities between the said provisions and the provisions of the Convention.

APPENDICES TO THE RESERVATION

CODE OF CRIMINAL PROCEDURE OF THE RSFSR (The text of the extracts include all amendments and additions as at 1 October 1997. Official publishing sources are indicated in the texts of the articles)

adopted by the third session of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR (fifth convocation) on 27 October 1960
("Vedomosti Verkhovnogo Soveta RSFSR", 1960, No. 40, page 593)

Article 11, paragraph 1 - Personal inviolability

No one may be arrested otherwise than on the basis of a judicial decision or a prosecutor's order (wording of the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR of 8 August 1983; of the Law of the Russian Federation of 23 May 1992; of the Federal Law of 15 June 1996 - Vedomosti Verkhovnogo Soveta RSFSR, 1983, No. 32, page 1153 - Vedomosti Syezda Narodnykh Deputatov Rossiyskoy Federatsii i Verkhovnogo Soveta Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 1992, No. 25, page 1389; Sobraniye Zakonodatelstva Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 1996, No. 25, page 2964).”

Article 89, paragraph 1 - Application of preventive measures

When there are sufficient grounds for believing that an accused person would evade an inquiry, preliminary investigation or trial or will obstruct the establishment of the truth in a criminal case or will engage in criminal activity, as well as in order to ensure execution of a sentence, the person conducting the inquiry, the investigator, the prosecutor and the court may apply one of the following preventive measures in respect of the accused: a written undertaking not to leave a specified place; a personal guarantee or a guarantee by a public organisation; placing in custody.”

Article 90 - Application of a preventive measure in respect of a suspect

In exceptional cases a preventive measure may be applied to a person suspected of having committed a criminal offence even before a charge is brought against him. In such a case the charge shall be brought not later than ten days from the time of the application of the preventive measure. If no charge is brought within this period, the preventive measure shall be cancelled.”

Article 92 - Order and decision on the application of a preventive measure

On the application of a preventive measure a person conducting an inquiry, an investigator and a prosecutor shall make a reasoned order, and a court shall give a reasoned decision specifying the criminal offence which the individual concerned is suspected of having committed, as well as the grounds for choosing the preventive measure applied. The order or decision shall be notified to the person concerned, to whom at the same time the procedure for appealing against the application of the preventive measure shall be explained.

A copy of the order or decision on the application of the preventive measure shall be immediately handed to the person concerned (wording of the Law of the Russian Federation of 23 May 1992 - Vedomosti Syezda Narodnykh Deputatov Rossiyskoy Federatsii i Verkhovnogo Soveta Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 1992, No. 25, page 1389).”

Article 96 - Placing in custody

Placing in custody as a preventive measure shall be done in accordance with the requirements of Article 11 of this Code concerning criminal offences for which the law prescribes a penalty in the form of deprivation of freedom for a period of more than one year. In exceptional cases, this preventive measure may be applied in criminal matters for which a penalty in the form of deprivation of freedom for a period of less than one year is prescribed by law (wording of the Decrees of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR of 10 September 1963, of 21 May 1970, of 17 April 1973, of 15 July 1974, of 11 March 1977 and of 8 August 1983; of the Laws of the Russian Federation of 23 May 1992, of 29 April 1993 and of 1 July 1993; of the Federal Laws of 1 July 1994, of 17 December 1995, of 15 June 1996 and of 21 December 1996 - Vedomosti Verkhovnogo Soveta RSFSR, 1963, No. 36, page 661; 1970, No. 22, page 442; 1973, No. 16, page 353; 1974, No. 29, page 782; 1977, No. 12, page 257; and 1983, No. 32, page 1153 - Vedomosti Syezda Narodnykh Deputatov Rossiyskoy Federatsii i Verkhovnogo Soveta Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 1992, No. 25, page 389, 1993, No. 22, page 789, No. 32, page 1231 - Sobraniye Zakonodatelstva Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 1994, No. 10, page 1109, 1995, No. 51, page 4973; 1996, No. 25, page 2964, and No. 52, page 5881).”

Article 961 - Procedure for detaining persons placed in custody

The procedure for detaining persons in respect of whom placing in custody has been chosen as a preventive measure is laid down in the Regulations (Polojenie) on pre-trial custody.

In cases where persons referred to in the preceding paragraph of this article are detained for up to three days in places of detention, they shall be subject to the rules laid down in the Regulations on procedure for short-term detention of persons suspected of having committed a criminal offence (brought into effect by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR of 21 May 1970; wording of the Decrees of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR of 30 December 1976 and 8 August 1983 - Vedomosti Verkhovnogo Soveta RSFSR, 1970, No. 22, page 442; 1977, No. 1, pages 2; 1983, No. 32, page 1153).”

Article 962 - Time-limits for detaining persons placed in custody in temporary detention centres

Suspects and accused persons who have been placed in custody as a preventive measure may be detained in a temporary detention centre for not more than three days.

Suspects and accused persons detained in an investigation centre may be transferred to a temporary detention centre when this is necessary for the carrying out of investigatory activities and the judicial examination of cases beyond the boundaries of the populated area within which the investigation centre is situated and from which the persons concerned cannot be conveyed every day. Such transfer may be effected for the duration of investigatory activities and court proceedings but not for more than 10 days in any one month (brought into effect by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR of 21 May 1970; wording of the Federal Law of 15 June 1996 - Vedomosti Verkhovnogo Soveta RSFSR, 1970, No. 22, page 442; Sobraniye Zakonodatelstva Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 1996, No. 25, page 2964).”

Article 97 - Time-limits for keeping in custody

A period of custody during the investigation of offences in criminal cases may not last longer than two months. This time-limit may be extended up to three months by a district or municipal prosecutor, a military prosecutor of a garrison, strategical unit or group of units and comparable prosecutors if it is impossible to complete the investigation and there are no grounds for altering the preventive measure. A further extension up to six months from the day of placement in custody may be effected only on account of the special complexity of the case by a prosecutor of a subject of the Russian Federation, a prosecutor of a military district, a military force grouping, naval fleet, the Strategic Missile Forces, the Federal Frontier Service of the Russian Federation or comparable prosecutors.

An extension of the time-limit for keeping persons in custody beyond six months shall be permissible in exceptional cases and solely in respect of persons accused of committing serious criminal offences or highly serious criminal offences. Such an extension shall be effected by a deputy of the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation (up to one year) and by the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation (up to 18 months).

No further extension of the time-limit shall be permissible, and the accused held in custody shall be releasable immediately.

The documents of a completed investigation of a criminal case shall be produced for consultation by the accused and his defence counsel not later than one month before the expiry of the maximum time-limit for holding in custody as prescribed in the second paragraph of the present article. In the event of the accused being unable to consult the case documents before the expiry of the maximum time-limit for holding in custody, the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation, a prosecutor of a subject of the Russian Federation, a prosecutor of a military district, a military force grouping, a naval fleet, the Strategic Missile Forces, the Federal Frontier Service of the Russian Federation and comparable prosecutors may, not later than five days before the expiry of the maximum time-limit for holding in custody, apply to the judge of the "oblast", "kray" or comparable court for an extension of this time-limit.

Not later than five days from the day of receipt of the application, the judge shall take one of the following decisions:

1. decision to extend the time-limit for holding in custody up to the completion by the accused and his counsel of their consultation of the documents of the case and the referral of the case to the court by the prosecutor, but not for more than six months;

2. decision to reject the prosecutor's application and to release the person concerned from custody.

Under the same procedure the time-limit for holding in custody may be extended in the case of need to accede to a request by the accused or his counsel to pursue the preliminary investigation further.

If a court returns for a new investigation a case regarding which the time-limit for holding the accused in custody has expired but the circumstances of the case preclude any modification of the preventive measure in the form of holding in custody, the time-limit for holding in custody shall be extended by the prosecutor supervising the investigation for up to one month from the date on which the case reaches him. Any further extension of the time-limit shall take account of the time spent by the accused in custody before the referral of the case to the court and shall be effected in the manner and within the limits prescribed in the first and second paragraphs of this article.

An extension of the time-limit for holding in custody in accordance with the present article shall be a ground for appealing to a court against the holding in custody and for a judicial verification of its legality and justification under the procedure provided for in Articles 2201 and 2202 of the present Code (wording of the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR of 11 December 1989; of the Law of the Russian Federation of 23 May 1992; of the Federal Law of 31 December 1996 - Vedomosti Verkhovnogo Soveta RSFSR, 1989, No. 50, page 1478 - Vedomosti Syezda Narodnykh Deputatov Rossiyskoy Federatsii i Verkhovnogo Soveta Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 1992, No. 25, page 1389; Sobraniye Zakonodatelstva Rossiyskoy Federatsii, 1997, No. 1, page 4).”

Article 101 - Cancellation or modification of a preventive measure

A preventive measure shall be cancelled when it ceases to be necessary, or else changed into a stricter or a milder one if the circumstances of the case so require. The cancellation or modification of a preventive measure shall be effected by a reasoned order of the person carrying out the inquiry, the investigator or the prosecutor, or by a reasoned court decision after the case has been transferred to a court.

The cancellation or modification, by the person conducting the inquiry or by the investigator, of a preventive measure chosen on the prosecutor's instructions shall be permissible only with the prosecutor's approval.”

Article 122 - Apprehension of a person suspected of committing a criminal offence

An organ of inquiry may apprehend a person suspected of committing a criminal offence punishable by a custodial sentence in one of the following instances only:

1. when the said person was caught at the time of commission of the criminal offence or immediately after its commission;

2. when eye witnesses, including victims, directly indicate that person as the perpetrator of the criminal offence;

3. when clear traces of the criminal offence are found on the suspected person or his clothing, with him or at his home.

When there are other factors constituting grounds for suspecting an individual of having committed a criminal offence, the individual may be apprehended only if he has attempted to escape or if he has no fixed abode or if he has not been identified.

On every case of apprehension of a person suspected of committing a criminal offence the organ of inquiry shall draw up a report indicating the relevant grounds and reasons, the day, time, year, month and place of apprehension, the explanations of the person apprehended and the time of drawing up the report, and shall inform the prosecutor in writing within 24 hours. The apprehension report shall be signed by the person who drew it up and by the person apprehended. Within 48 hours of being notified of the apprehension the prosecutor shall be required either to approve the placing of the person apprehended in custody or to release that person (wording of the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR of 30 December 1976, - Vedomosti Verkhovnogo Soveta RSFSR, 1977, No. 1, page 2).”

DISCIPLINARY REGULATIONS OF THE ARMED FORCES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION - (The text of the extracts include all amendments and additions as at 1 October 1997. Official publishing sources are indicated in the texts of the articles)

Approved by Decree No. 2140 of the President of the Russian Federation, of 14 December 1997 (Collection of Instruments of the President and the Government of the Russian Federation, 1993, No. 51, page 4931)

“51. The following punishments may be imposed on private soldiers and seamen:

a. reprimand;
b. severe reprimand;
c. deprivation of conscripted soldiers and seamen of scheduled leave from their unit or ship;
d. detailing of conscripted soldiers and seamen to up to five extra tours of duty;
e. arrest and detention in the guard-house for up to seven days in the case of soldiers and seamen serving under a contract and for up to ten days in the case of conscripted soldiers and seamen;
f. deprivation of the badge of excellence;
g. early transfer to the reserve in the case of soldiers and seamen serving under a contract.”

“52. The following punishments may be imposed on conscripted non-commissioned officers:

a. reprimand;
b. severe reprimand;
c. deprivation of ordinary leave from the unit or ship;
d. arrest and detention in the guard-house for up to ten days;
e. deprivation of the badge of excellence;
f. demotion in post;
g.demotion in rank by one grade;
h. demotion in rank by one grade with transfer to a lower post.”

“53. The following punishments may be imposed on non-commissioned officers serving under a contract:

a. reprimand;
b. severe reprimand;
c. arrest and detention in the guard-house for up to seven days;
d. deprivation of the badge of excellence;
e. demotion in post;
f. early transfer to the reserve.

The punishments specified in item (c) of the present article and in items (c)-(e) of Article 51 may not be imposed on women serving as private soldiers, seamen and non-commissioned officers.”

“62. The following punishments may be imposed on officers:

a. reprimand;
b. severe reprimand;
c. arrest and detention in the guard-house for up to five days;
d. warning about inadequate suitability for duty;
e. demotion in post;
f. early transfer to the reserve.

The punishment specified in item (c) of the present article may not be imposed on women serving as officers.”
Period covered: 05/05/1998 -
Articles concerned : 5


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