This topic falls within the terms of reference of the CAHDI insofar as they require it to "examine topical questions of public international law".
Under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter, the UN Security Council may order enforcement measures,* in particular measures not involving the use of armed force.**
The Security Council may order coercive measures against individuals, in particular in connection with the fight against international terrorism. Such individuals are then targeted as members or supporters of entities posing a threat to peace. This applies to individuals suspected of being members of Al-Qaeda or providing it with material or financial support.
The sanctions, which are often called "targeted sanctions" or "intelligent sanctions", usually involve:
- freezing of financial assets, funds and other economic resources,
- embargoes on arms sales,
- bans on foreign travel.
The Security Council may decide to set up subsidiary bodies, namely Sanctions Committees, to oversee the proper implementation of the sanctions and draw up the lists of persons concerned on the basis of information submitted by states. They also supervise the implementation of enforcement measures at state level.
UN member states are responsible for implementing sanctions at national level and are therefore required to adopt national implementation measures and make sure that the individuals concerned comply with them.
In the case of European Union member states, the implementation of sanctions is based on the adoption of joint positions or European Union regulations which are directly applicable in the member states' domestic legal systems.
*Article 39, Charter of the United Nations
"The Security Council shall determine the existence of any threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression and shall make recommendations, or decide what measures shall be taken in accordance with Articles 41 and 42, to maintain or restore international peace and security".
**Article 41, Charter of the United Nations
"The Security Council may decide what measures not involving the use of armed force are to be employed to give effect to its decisions, and it may call upon the Members of the United Nations to apply such measures. These may include complete or partial interruption of economic relations and of rail, sea, air, postal, telegraphic, radio, and other means of communication, and the severance of diplomatic relations".